Energy and Environment Challenges in the Transport Sector Xavier Labandeira Economics for Energy and rede, University of Vigo
IEB, 27 May 2013
Contents Comments on Proost’s paper More insights Reconciling environmental damage, energy dependence and more Taxing car use New green tax reforms? Non-mandatory approaches Growing international complexity
Some results for Spain
Comments on the paper Sustainability of mobility patterns? Local environmental problems and congestion Second-best approach to local pollution Measures on stock (cars) and flow (fuel) Distributional effects Addiction to scrappage schemes? Learning by doing/learning by research?
Comments/2 Resource constraint? Shales Energy dependence and energy rents High car-fuel taxes and capture of rents (post 1973)
Climate constraints Fuel tax = carbon tax? Efficiency standards and barriers to energy efficiency Role of policy for alternative fuels?
More insights Effectiveness, so far, of energy and environmentallyrelated policies in transport Social preferences; counterfactuals…
Reconciling energy dependence, environmental damage and more (distribution, competitiveness, etc.) One instrument and several objectives One objective and several instruments
An example: Taxing car use How and why?
More insights/2 New green tax reforms Crucial role of transport taxation The distributional debate Non-revenue neutral solutions
Non-mandatory approaches Voluntary schemes for manufacturers: carrot vs stick? Energy efficiency labels
More insights/3 Growing international complexity The climate constraint, again Different realities and regulations across the world The end of energy subsidies?
Some results for Spain The context Significant environmental concerns High energy dependence Low taxation of car fuels Crisis and demand for car fuels
Three recent studies for Spain Energy efficiency costs and potentials Social preferences on climate-related transport policies Effects of energy-efficiency certificates on the price of cars
Energy efficiency costs and potentials Aislamiento
Calderas Iluminación Vehículos eficientes
Bomba de calor
TREND 26% savings on BAU 2% less than in 2010 16
Vehículos eficientes y cambio modal
Bomba de calor
19% additional saving 50% on negative cpsts 17
Social preferences on climate policies Positive but moderate WTP for low-GHG car fuels The importance of on WTP (0.07 Euros/l) Influence of ‘pro-social’ and ‘economic-concerns’ attitudinal factors Influence of level of information, income and gender
Energy efficiency labels and the price of cars A comprehensive database with official and ‘retail’ prices Use of hedonic-price methodology Positive impact of A/B energy efficiency labels on prices (2.1 to 5.6%)
THANKS http://webs.uvigo.es/xavier [email protected]