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Nuclear Chemistry or Radiochemistry -Know basic vocabulary -2 types of transmutations -4 nuclear decay emissions -Write ...

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Nuclear Chemistry or Radiochemistry -Know basic vocabulary -2 types of transmutations -4 nuclear decay emissions -Write nuclear decay reactions -Calculate Vz lives -know h o w nuclear powerplants work -Know about Chernobyl -Be able to complete the U-238 decay series

Vocabulary Terms

Definitions

Responses

Mass defect

T h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n the a c t u a l m a s s of an a t o m a n d t h e s u m of the m a s s e s of the isolated particles c o m p o s i n g it

Transmutation

T h e c o n v e r s i o n of o n e e l e m e n t into a n o t h e r ; m a y be n a t u r a l or artificial

Binding energy

T h e e n e r g y r e q u i r e d to split t h e n u c l e u s into s e p a r a t e n u c l e o n s

Half-life

T h e length of t i m e n e c e s s a r y for o n e - h a l f a n a m o u n t of a r a d i o a c t i v e nuclide to d i s i n t e g r a t e

Fission

T h e splitting of an a t o m i c n u c l e u s into s m a l l e r f r a g m e n t s , a c c o m p a n i e d by the r e l e a s e of n e u t r o n s a n d a l a r g e a m o u n t of energy

Fusion

A n u c l e a r r e a c t i o n in w h i c h small nuclei are c o m b i n e d to m a k e a larger n u c l e u s , a c c o m p a n i e d by t h e r e l e a s e of a large a m o u n t of energy

A l p h a particle

A helium nucleus, containing two protons and two neutrons

B e t a particle

A f a s t m o v i n g e l e c t r o n e m i t t e d f r o m certain r a d i o a c t i v e n u c l e i ; it is formed when a neutron decomposes A particle that has t h e s a m e m a s s a s an e l e c t r o n but h a s a p o s i t i v e

Positron

charge

1

L

Radioactive decay

T h e p r o c e s s in w h i c h a n u n s t a b l e n u c l e u s l o s e s e n e r g y by e m i t t i n g •radiation \^i^i^V^9r^L«K,p.,

G a m m a rays

A q u a n t u m of e n e r g y of very high f r e q u e n c y a n d v e r y s h o r t wavelength

Geiger counter

A gas-filled m e t a l t u b e u s e d to d e t e c t t h e p r e s e n c e of b e t a r a d i a t i o n

Radioisotope

I s o t o p e s that h a v e u n s t a b l e n u c l e i a n d u n d e r g o r a d i o a c t i v e d e c a y

B a n d of stability

T h e location of stable nuclei on a n e u t r o n - v s . - p r o t o n plot

Nucleon

A particle f o u n d in the n u c l e u s of a n a t o m ; a p r o t o n or a n e u t r o n

Nuclide

A n a t o m of a specific e n e r g y with a s p e c i f i e d n u m b e r of p r o t o n s a n d a s p e c i f i e d n u m b e r of n e u t r o n s in its n u c l e u s

Ionizing radiation

R a d i a t i o n w h i c h has e n o u g h e n e r g y to p r o d u c e ions by k n o c k i n g e l e c t r o n s off s o m e of the a t o m s it strikes

Chain reaction

A s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g fission p r o c e s s c a u s e d by t h e p r o d u c t i o n of n e u t r o n s that p r o c e e d to split other nuclei

Radiotracer

A r a d i o a c t i v e n u c l i d e , i n t r o d u c e d into an o r g a n i s m for d i a g n o s t i c p u r p o s e s , w h o s e p a t h w a y can be t r a c e d by m o n i t o r i n g its radioactivity

1

1

Nuclides (I) Atomic#

Nuclide

2

Heliuni-4

Mass#

#Protons

#Eleetrons

M

#Neutrons

Hyphen notation

z

14

Carbon -

Nuclear notation

C ' IS-

s Boron - 11

u

5

il

s

s

b

L

-M

s ^

29

Silicon Copper -63

Cu-

2^ 42

Arsenic -75

33

Gold-197

45

80

Bromine -gD

79

'

86

Radon- 222

Neon-22

146

238

Uranium 10

10

\ 35

Copper - 64

! .

Lithium- 0-

3.

6

3

L_„„_______^____

^3

L.

Name

Types of Nuclear Decay . . . A n u c l e a r r e a c t i o n is a r e a c t i o n t h a t affects t h e p . u C - \ ^ U - S

AM

2009

^

o f an a t o m .

. . . A t r a n s m u t a t i o n is a c h a n g e in t h e i d e n t i t y of a nucleus as a result of a c h a n g e in t h e n u m b e r o f its r > u r . \ f . C ^ S . . . . R a d i o a c t i v e d e c a y is t h e s p o n t a n e o u s d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f a nucleus i n t o a slightly l i g h t e r n u c l e u s , a c c o m p a n i e d by e m i s s i o n of C n e - r c ^ g ^

,

pr-ur^cAgi

, or both.

N u c l e a r c h a n g e or d e c a y is a n ^ ^ ^ ' ^ ^ ^ p r o c e s s . and

f)

it c o n t a i n s .

are r e c o g n i z e d e x p e r i m e n t a l l y

^^^^^^^

The stability of a nuclide partly depends

on t h e relative n u m b e r

of

In s o m e cases, h a v i n g t o o m a n y n e u t r o n s is t h e cause o f t h e J'OSt^^bv ii HA^. S t a b l e n u c l i d e s b e c a u s e t h e y do n o t change.

U n s t a b l e nuclides

^e£A>^

in o r d e r

t o reach

stability.

C h a n g i n g t o a s t a b l e n u c l i d e m a y i n v o l v e o n e or m o r e decays. In n u c l e a r d e c a y , t h e i n i t i a l n u c l e u s is called t h e ^ o T e i ^ i L , a n d t h e n e w nucleus t h a t results is called t h e Ad lA/^V>\e-r . N u c l e a r e q u a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g a n u c l e a r r e a c t i o n a r e b a l a n c e d w h e n t h e s u m of t h e a t o m i c n u m b e r s o n t h e righr is e q u a l to t h e S U m

f\\-ovvNK(

Tsu.ivW-jPn t h e left. Sums o f t h e iXN,asS n u m b e r s o n t h e right a n d left sides m u s t b e e q u a l also. Nuclear Decay Organizer and Nuclear E q u a t i o n Practice Alpha Particle

Beta Particle Emission

Symbol

Positron Particle :

Emission

4e

or

or

y.p

G a m m a Ray E m i s s i o n

Emission

\

.Converts a

. , .Converts a p r o t o n

H o w it c h a n g e s t h e

. . .Decreases t h e

nucleus. . .

mass n u m b e r by 4

neutron into a proton

, . . Decreases t h e

, . . I n c r e a s e s a t o m i c ft ! . . , A t o m i c

a t o m i c # by 2

by 1

., ,No change t o the nucleus

\o a n e u t r o n .

: d e c r e a s e s by 1 ; m a s s r? stays s a m e

Examples of Nuclear Decay Processes

P

a emission

emission

P

emission

- 0

1.

W r i t e a n e q u a t i o n t o r e p r e s e n t t h e d e c a y o f r a d i u m - 2 2 6 b y a e m i s s i o n a n d b i s m u t h - Z O B b y P' e m i s s i o n .

?3 O i

1.

92-

2.

T h e p r o d u c t s f r o m a n u c i e a L r e a c t i o n a r e an a p a r t i c l e a n d poioniurTi-218. I d e n t i f y t h e p a r e n t n u c l i d e a n d w r i t e e q u a t i o n .

3.

W r i t e e q u a t i o n s f o r t h e decay of a n d r a d i u m - 2 2 4 by a emission.

4.

W r i t e e q u a t i o n s f o r t h e d e c a y o f c o b a l t - 6 0 a n d c a l c i u m - 3 9 by B e m i s s i o n .

5.

6.

^

W r i t e a n e q u a t i o n f o r t h e d e c a y o f c o p p e r - b 4 a n d n i t r o g e n -12 b y (3' e m i s s i o n . Fill i n t h e c o r r e c t s y m b o l t o c o m p l e t e e a c h e q u a t i o n . a)

c)

HU} 'i^iRa

? + Ule -> -^Rn

b) ^^J,T/i ^

+

?

H

^_

d) 'lU

^

?

'^,(:a

_ie

.

^

? _^ A

7.

W r i t e an e q u a t i o n f o r t h e decay of p o l o n i u m - 2 1 8 by a emission.

8.

W r i t e a n e q u a t i o n f o r t h e d e c a y o f c a r b o n - 1 4 b y (J e m i s s i o n . T h e n by (i * e m i s s i o n .

o< -

t v N ^ s S . ^ (.fvAvMLW NbgSlJ^ A^^;^

-

^^-v^f^

ei^-")

w^Ws

Y Table () Symbols Used in Nuclear Chemistry Name alpha

hi'ta

particle

-NOlaliun il-le

or

i u

particle

\' i

^ a i i i n i a r.idialioii

1.,

ii(ail]-|)ii |)r()l(Mi [lOMtroii

Symbol

11 ill

.„

|p

"'-_','(-!

I' IS-

Name

Per

Nuclear Decay U s i n g a p e r i o d i c t a b l e , fill in t h e b l a n k s to c o m p l e t e the f o l l o w i n g nuclear e q u a t i o n s . T h e n , identify w h i c h t y p e ( s ) of d e c a y particles w e r e p r o d u c e d .

Standard: s t u d e n t s know the three most c o m m o n forms of radioactive decay (aloha beta, and g a m m a ) and k n o w how the nucleus changes in each type of decay.

03

JO.

TO

<

E E CD

/ D e s c r i b e t h e c h a n g e that t o o k p l a c e a b o v e .

'^2^

->

a He.

+

/

D e s c r i b e t h e c h a n g e that t o o k p l a c e a b o v e .

1 f

J Describe the c h a n g e that took place above.

y Describe the c h a n g e that took place above. 1

- J ; D e s c r i b e t h e c h a n g e that t o o k p l a c e a b o v e .

y D e s c r i b e t h e c h a n g e that t o o k p l a c e a b o v e .

J D e s c r i b e t h e c h a n g e that t o o k p l a c e a b o v e .


+

1

^

+

Describe the c h a n g e that took place above.

fl/

y

Nuclear Chemistry Worksheet Using your knowledge processes:

of nuclear chemistry,

write the equations

for the

following

1)

The alpha decay of radon-198

2)

The beta decay of uranium-237

3)

Positron emission from silicon-26

4)

Sodium-22 undergoes electron capture

5)

W h a t is the difference between nuclear fusion and nuclear fission?

6)

W h a t is a "mass defect" and why is it important?

7)

Name three uses for nuclear reactions.

2-2,

For chemistry help, visit vmw.chemfiesta.com

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Publishing - All Rights

Reserved

Nuclear Chemistry Worksheet - S o l u t i o n s Using your knowledge processes:

of nuclear

chemistry,

write the equations

for the

following

1)

The alpha decay of radon-198

2)

The beta decay of uranium -237

3)

Positron emission from silicon-26

4)

Sodium-22 undergoes electron capture

5)

W h a t is the difference between nuclear fusion and nuclear fission'? Ill n u c l e a r f u s i o n , s m a i l n u c l e i are c o r n b i n e a to f o r m a l a r g e r n u c l e u s - t h i s p r o c e s s releases a v e r y large a m o u n t of e n e r g y , a n d is t h e m a i n s o u r c e of e n e r g y in the s u n . in n u c l e a r f i s s i o n , large n u c l e i b r e a k a p a r t l o f o r m s m a l l e r o n e s , r e l e a s i n g a large a m o u n t of e n e r g y . F i s s i o n is u s e d in n u c l e a r p o w e r p l a n t s to g e n e r a t e e n e r g y .

6)

W h a t is a ' m a s s defect" and why is it important? "IVlass d e f e c t " refers to t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e m a s s of t h e n u c l e o n s ( p r o t o n s + n e u t r o n s ) in a n u c l e u s w h e n w e i g h e d s e p a r a t e l y a n d the m a s s of the n u c l e u s when it's put t o g e t h e r . T h i s difference is i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e this m i s s i n g m a s s is c o n v e r t e d t o e n e r g y u s i n g E-mc'^ t h a t ' s u s e d to h o l d t h e n u c l e u s t o g e t h e r .

7)

Name three uses for nuclear reactions. • * a

For chemislry

Nuclear weapons Medicine Nuclear power generation

help, visit

wwv\/.chemfiesta.com

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Publishing - Alt Rights

Reserved

Name

WS Half-life 2

The H a l f - L i f e o f R a d o n - 2 2 5 is a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 days. On t h e grid b e l o w , p l o t t h e a m o u n t of R a d o n - 2 2 6 l e f t a f t e r each 4 d a y t i m e p e r i o d w h e n y o u s t a r t w i t h a 4 8 g s a m p l e o f R a d o n - 2 2 6

Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

How many grams How many grams H o w many grains I f 8 g o f radon are H o w many grams

o f radon would be present after 4 day.s'.^ ^ ^ o f radon would be present after 12 da\s'.' o f radon would be present after 24 da_\s'.^ 0."^^5 left, what is the time elapsed'.' \ <^C^y> o f radon would be present after 6 da}s'?

Name 1.

WS Decay Series o f U - 2 3 8 C o m p l e t e t h e t a b l e using t h e decay series of U-238

•5 a

-

%^ SM ?5

-

'

^

»T

%s-

-

&\o

-

qt

•• 92

atomic niiiiiber 2. C o m p l e t e t h e r e a c t i o n s a n d m a r k t h e g r a p h a b o v e w/ith t h e n u c l i d e t h a t is f o r m e d .

238 ^3

p ^3

33a

^^P

^

irn

n>