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New Horizons in the Prevention of Type 1 and Type 2 © Copyright 1999-20...

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New Horizons in the Prevention of Type 1 and Type 2 © Copyright 1999-2014, Diabetes Education Services, All Rights Reserved.

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Topics 

New findings in diabetes prevention and treatment  

Focus on Type 2 Focus on Type 1


CDC Announces 35% of Americans will have Diabetes by 2050 Boyle, Thompson, Barker, Williamson 2010, Oct 22:8(1)29

Diabetes in America 2014 25.8 million or > 8.3% 12.6 million are women  79 million have pre diabetes  

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World diabetes dayNovember 14 DIABETES: PROTECT OUR FUTURE

Type 2 in Kids      

7 fold increase 1990 1 in 6 overwt kids (age 12- 19) have prediabetes. ~2,500 to 3,700 new cases in U.S. annually. Highest risk: very obese, minority, female, low socioeconomic status, limited education In age range 12-19, less than 1% have Type 2 – NHANES Environmental changes to urgently needed

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Why Should Zip Code Determine Life Expectancy?

California Endowment – look up your zip code at

Thoughts on Diabetes, Weight, Social Change 

“The only way on a societal basis to reduce the prevalence of obesity is through community action” – Dr. Frieden, CDC

Obesity (BMI 30+) prevalence 22% to 40%  Poverty, Obesity, Diabetes inter-related 

Type 2

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Obesity - other factors?   

Not only humans are gaining weight globally Animals are getting heavier too (and not just the domestic kind). Factors – sleep deprivation, AC, other? 

Marmosets to macaques

Newsweek, Fat Canaries in a Coal Mine, Dec 10, 2010.. Begley

Bacterial Cells Outnumber Human Cells 10 to 1

Getting to the Gut  Gut bacteria and body

weight  Gut bacteria health influence on expression of type 1 and type 2  Gut hormones

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The Work of Gut Flora

Electron micrograph of small intestine and bacterial habitants in green. Obesity and Gut Flora, Nature 2006

Normal Gut Bacteria  

Diverse Collected over a life time through  

Environmental exposure Types of foods consumed 

 

Breast or bottle fed?

Parents Vaginal delivery or C-Section

Help us  

utilize energy fight off invaders

Intestinal Health – A Balancing Act  Major Groups  

Firmicutes Bacteroidetes Plus thousands of others Diversity of gut bacteria more protective

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Weight and Gut Bacteria New and Early Research 

Leaner people   

Obese people  

more bacterial diversity More bacteroidetes Gut bacteria less efficient at converting food to calories More firmicutes Gut bacteria very efficient at calorie extraction

Bacteria tend to run in families Newsweek, July 6 2010

Visceral Fat – “Endocrine Organ”

Fatty Foods Trigger Leaky Gut? With diabetes, a high fat meal appears to trigger: • •

Passage of bacterial endotoxins through intestinal wall Increase levels of inflammatory cytokines and triglycerides

Seems to be worse if eat frequent fatty meals throughout the day – increases presence of lipopolysaccharide endotoxins Research by Alison Harte, PhD - Clinical Endocrinology News- Nov 11, 2011

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H. Plyori a Gut Culprit? Helicobacter pylori infection doubled risk of DM among Latinos 60 yrs +  Study details: 

   

1,789 Latino men, women in Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (SALSA) During 10 yr study, 18% developed diabetes 2.7 times more likely to develop diabetes if seropositive for H. pylori (also assoc w/ higher BMI) Why? Inflammation?

Reported at Annual Meeting of Infectious Disease Society of America – Research led by Dr. Christine Y. Jeon of Columbia University - Clinical Endocrinology News- Nov 11, 2011

Tax to Improve Health? In Mexico, 8 percent sales tax on high-calorie foods, including potato chips, sweets and cereal.  President Enrique Peña Nieto is expected to sign into law in January  On avg, 1 person consumes 40 gallons of soda each year 

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Type 1 Diabetes Facts

The Miracle MiracleofofInsulin Insulin The

Patient J.L., December 15, 1922

February 15, 1923

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1923 Born: 14 November 1891, Alliston, Canada Died: 21 February 1941, Newfoundland, Canada Affiliation at the time of the award: University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada Prize motivation: "for the discovery of insulin" Field: endocrinology, metabolism Frederick G. Banting

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Images shows insulin (blue) molecules binding with insulin receptors (yellow) Jan 2013 The international research team was led by scientists from the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute (WEHI) in Melbourne, with collaborators from La Trobe University, the University of Melbourne, Case Western Reserve University, the University of Chicago, the University of York and the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry in Prague.

Natural History of Type 1

Autoantibodies Assoc w/ Type 1 Panel of autoantibodies –     

GAD65 - Glutamic acid decarboxylase – ZnT8 - Zinc Co-Transporter 8 ICA - Islet Cell Cytoplasmic Autoantibodies IA-2A - Insulinoma-Associated-2 Autoantibodies IAA - Insulin Autoantibodies

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The Honeymoon • 

By diagnosis, 15-40% of beta cell function remains Length of honeymoon varies 

 

10-15% of teens and adults still have clinically significant insulin production > 5 yrs after DM onset (DCCT, NEJM 1993)

Rate of beta cell loss is correlated with age Younger pts tend to have shorter honeymoons

Medalist Study – Harvard Joslin Diabetes Center 

After 50 years with diabetes  

Many still produced some insulin Many had no eye disease

Remaining Beta Cells Can serve one well while it lasts…even if on supplemental insulin.  Better overall glucose control lower A1C, less glycemic excursion, lower risk for severe hypoglycemia 

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Research on Type 1 Pathophysiology  Primary Prevention – what triggers type 1? 

   

 

Viruses Lack of breastfeeding Early exposure to foods? Hygiene (too much?)

Intervention – Secondary and Tertiary Cure

Primary Prevention of Type 1 Strategy – Find those at highest risk of Type 1 diabetes and see if early intervention to protect beta cells prevents or delays onset.  Identify through genetic testing  1 million currently at risk 

Funded by NIDDK, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the CDC, the JDRF, and the ADA.

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TEDDY – to determine if… 

Can reduce the risk of type 1 diabetes w/     

Avoid early cows milk exposure Avoid introduction of gluten grains < 6mo Adequate vitamin D Reduce nitrate exposure Others


TEDDY Update 

No news yet on causes yet, but researchers have developed a reliable system of identifying who is at risk for type 1 diabetes based on autoimmune markers.

TEDDY approach offers “appropriate and effective public health model for screening for type 1 diabetes in the general population”, William Hagopian, MD, PhD,

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Coxsackie Virus Vaccine? Opens up novel possibilities for future research aimed at developing vaccines against these viruses to prevent type 1 diabetes.  Since the group B coxsackieviruses includes only six enterovirus types it may be possible to include all of them in the same vaccine. 

The Hygiene Hypothesis •

  

In studies, mouse raised in clean environment is higher risk for DM than one raised in dirty one “Clean living” may increase risk for autoimmune diseases Risk is higher in urban than rural settings •Daycare, other early exposures, lower risk for DM

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Take Home Message   

Get Dirty Breastfeed if possible. Avoid early exposure to cows milk and cows milk based formula and gluten? – year of life for those at high risk Keep an eye on new research results

Get Involved – Get Screened

Why participate in Screening? Contribute to understanding  Prevent DKA – Earlier diagnosis safer  Start insulin sooner, may prolong honeymoon  Early education and transitions  Eligible for intervention studies 

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TrialNet Natural History Study Who is eligible for screening? • •

Ages 1-45 & immediate family member w/ DM Ages 1-20 for extended family

What is the screening test? 

Single blood test for panel of autoantibodies Those < 18 & Ab neg rescreened yearly

What happens if they have 1 or > Abs?  Monitoring and on-going surveillance Genetic screen: HLA class II  Metabolic screen: Oral glucose tolerance test

TrialNet Sitesi

Type 1 –Intervention Studies Trial Net – Oral insulin, delay onset 4 yrs Vaccine (glutamic acid decarboxylase)- Start earlier  START Trial – Thymoglobulin – still enrolling  CD3 Monoclonal Antibodies  Stem Cell  

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CD3 – Teplizumab

Stops Autoimmune Destruction    

52 participants Most less than14 years old, with “new-onset type 1 diabetes” within 8 wks of trial’s start. All 52 were treated with the experimental drug for two weeks at diagnosis and again one year later, About ½ of the participants on Teplizumab maintained insulin production The clinical trial was led by Kevan Herold, MD, PhD, a professor of immunobiology and deputy director for translational science at Yale University.

Get Active and Keep Mind and Body Healthy 

Exercise –   

Walking or weights 3 times a week Dancing Yoga and Mindfulness

Engage – Get Social  Lose weight: 5-10% 

Moving to a Happier Life

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In Conclusion “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has.” —Margaret Mead

Special Discount on “Deluxe Bundle” Save $30 – ends May 16, Fri 18 courses and 25.0 CEs, it's easy.  Go to - Online Courses  Click and choose “Deluxe Bundle”  After you hit the green button to purchase enter the coupon code almond and you will see your $30 discount applied.

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We would love an Invitation to Present in Your Town –

Thank You Questions?  Email [email protected]  Web 

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