Michel Loreau

Biodiversity: challenges for science and governance Michel Loreau Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal E-m...

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Biodiversity: challenges for science and governance Michel Loreau Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal E-mail: [email protected]

The Earth is home to a tremendous biodiversity — the diversity of life in all its forms: • The millions of different species • The diversity of their genes, physiologies, and behaviours • The multitude of their ecological interactions • The variety of the ecosystems they constitute This biodiversity, which is the result of more than 3 billionConserver, yearsexploiter, of evolution, is under serious threat today partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Michel Loreau

Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

A sixth extinction crisis?

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Species extinction rates increase

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Vertebrate populations decline

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Main direct drivers of biodiversity changes

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Massive biodiversity loss is essentially irreversible • Each species is the product of a unique, nonreproducible history • Palaeontology shows that it takes about ten million years to recover previous levels of species diversity after a period of mass extinction, and the new biodiversity strongly differs from that lost

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Why does biodiversity matter?

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Factors underlying broad patterns of human history Ultimate factors

Biogeography Many suitable wild species

Ease of species spreading

Many domesticated plant and animal species Food surplus and storage Large, dense, sedentary, stratified societies Technology

Proximate factors

Horses

Guns, steel swords

Ocean-going ships

Political organisation, writing

Epidemic diseases

Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel (1997) Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Biodiversity allowed the advent of modern civilisations, but… • Plant and animal domestication often involves a reduction in biodiversity through artificial selection • Industrialisation and modern technology provide humankind with increasing control over, and independence from, nature

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

This control over, and independence from, nature is partly a reality, but also partly an illusion: • Any production process is a relationship to nature, i.e., both transforms and depends on nature • As humankind transforms nature, it also transforms the conditions of its own existence with major unanticipated feedbacks (climate change…) • Biological systems are complex adaptive systems which change and evolve continuously

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Why does biodiversity matter? Humankind depends on biodiversity in many ways: • Biodiversity provides goods that have direct use values (food, wood, textiles, pharmaceuticals…), and is an inexhaustible source of innovations Example of pharmaceuticals:  More than 20,000 species have been used for medicinal purposes  41% of prescription drugs in the USA have their active ingredients derived from living organisms (25% from plants, 13% from microorganisms, 3% from animals)  Over 70% of promising anti-cancer drugs come from plants in the rainforest

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Why does biodiversity matter? Humankind depends on biodiversity in many ways: • Biodiversity provides goods that have direct use values (food, wood, textiles, pharmaceuticals…), and is an inexhaustible source of innovations • It is a natural heritage, source of aesthetic, spiritual, cultural, and recreational values

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Why does biodiversity matter? Humankind depends on biodiversity in many ways: • Biodiversity provides goods that have direct use values (food, wood, textiles, pharmaceuticals…), and is an inexhaustible source of innovations • It is a natural heritage, source of aesthetic, spiritual, cultural, and recreational values • It supports ecosystem services that have indirect values (primary production, nutrient cycling, soil formation, crop pollination, water purification, climate regulation, disease regulation…)

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Species diversity increases plant biomass production in grasslands Aboveground biomass (g/m2)

1500

1000

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0

Germany Ireland UK Switzerland Portugal Sweden Greece 0

1

2

4

8

16

32

Species richness Hector et al., Science 286: 1123–1127 (1999)

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Plant species diversity provides insurance in grassland ecosystems

Tilman et al., Nature 441: 629–632 (2006)

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Genetic diversity increases rice resistance to blast disease

“Disease-susceptible rice varieties planted in mixtures had 89% greater yield and blast was 94% less severe than when they were grown in monoculture. The experiment was so successful that fungicidal spray was no longer applied by the end of the two-year programme.” Zhu et al., Nature 406: 718–722 (2000)

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Vertebrate host diversity reduces risk of human exposure to Lyme disease

Ostfeld & Keesing, Conserv. Biol. 14: 722–728 (2000)

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Loss of insect pollinators compensated by human labour in Himalaya

International Center for Integrated Mountain Development, Nepal

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human well-being

In the long run, the loss of biodiversity and of associated ecosystem services mayLesbeenjeux a serious human Conserver, exploiter, partager. de la mise enthreat œuvre de to la Convention sur well-being la diversité biologique Michel Loreau

Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Can technology substitute for ecosystem services? Partial substitutability is possible, but… • The complexity and dynamical nature of ecosystems make perfect substitutability of all ecosystem services by technology impossible • Substitutability is bound to become increasingly difficult and costly as humankind affects the global Earth system • Rather than pretending to control and master nature at all cost, humans should learn to recognise themselves as a conscious part of nature and live with the life that surrounds them Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Biodiversity: scientific challenges 1. How much biodiversity is there on Earth?

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Biodiversity: scientific challenges 1. How much biodiversity is there on Earth?  New approaches and technologies for the exploration of the Earth’s biodiversity

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Biodiversity: scientific challenges 2. How is biodiversity changing?  Coordinated observation system and standardised methods to monitor biodiversity  Integrated models of social, ecological, and evolutionary processes to predict future biodiversity changes

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Biodiversity: scientific challenges 3. What are the ecological and social consequences of biodiversity changes?  Large-scale experimental systems to study the effects of biodiversity on ecosystem services  Integrated ecological-economic models to predict their effects on human societies

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Biodiversity: scientific challenges 4. How can we best manage and protect biodiversity?  Understanding the motivations and incentives that underlie biodiversity loss or protection  New approaches for optimising the multiple uses of biodiversity, considering possible tradeoffs and conflicts

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Biodiversity: scientific challenges These scientific challenges are enormous

We need a major research effort of the size of the space exploration programmes for the exploration of the Earth’s biodiversity, the causes and consequences of its loss, and the best means to conserve and use it

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Biodiversity: the human challenge Biodiversity science: a diversity of approaches… which has traditionally led to a certain fragmentation: • among scientific disciplines (taxonomy, molecular biology, ecology, economics, social sciences…) • within scientific disciplines (population ecology, ecosystem ecology…) • among ecosystem types (terrestrial, freshwater, marine) • among organism types (vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, microbes…) Need for integration: inla mise diversity Conserver, exploiter, partager. Unity Les enjeux de en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Michel Loreau

Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

DIVERSITAS An international programme of biodiversity science

Overall goals:  Promote an integrative biodiversity

science, linking biological, ecological and social disciplines

 Provide the scientific bases for the

conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

DIVERSITAS An international programme of biodiversity science 3 Core Projects Discovering, monitoring, and predicting changes in biodiversity

Assessing the ecological and social impacts of biodiversity changes Developing the science of the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

DIVERSITAS An international programme of biodiversity science Biodiversity changes Drivers Land/sea use Biological invasions Pollution Climate change …

Ecosystem processes, goods and services Human activities Social, legal, economic, political motivators

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Biodiversity: challenges for governance • Recognize the importance of biodiversity as a global environmental issue • Educate and inform citizens • Support a major coordinated research effort on biodiversity

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Biodiversity: challenges for governance • Use available knowledge to take actions now • Include the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity as an integral component of social and economic development and of all economic and policy decisions

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Biodiversity: linking science and policy • The CBD and other international agreements do not have the means to mobilise the expertise of a large, diverse scientific community • A mechanism for synthesising scientific knowledge and providing independent scientific assessment to support policy decisions (such as IPCC for climate change) is currently lacking • The Millenium Ecosystem Assessment was a first attempt at filling the gap between science and policy, but it was a one-off effort and it did not involve governments directly Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Biodiversity: linking science and policy

• The idea of establishing an international panel on biodiversity akin to the IPCC was supported by Jacques Chirac during the International Conference Biodiversity Science and Governance in Paris • This idea has received strong support from the scientists assembled in both the Paris conference and the First DIVERSITAS Open Science Conference in Oaxaca Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Paris declaration on biodiversity The scientists assembled in the International Conference Biodiversity Science and Governance held in Paris in January 2005 agreed on the following declaration:

1. Biodiversity is a natural heritage and a vital resource for all humankind The Earth is home to a tremendous biological diversity, which not only includes the millions of different species that inhabit our planet, but also the diversity of their genes, physiologies, and behaviours, the multitude of their ecological interactions with each other and with their physical environment, and the variety of the complex ecosystems they constitute. This biodiversity, which is the product of more than 3 billion years of evolution, is an irreplaceable natural heritage and a vital resource upon which humankind depends in many different ways: • it is a source of aesthetic, spiritual, cultural, and recreational values; • it provides goods that have direct use values, such as food, wood, textiles and pharmaceuticals; • it supports and enhances ecosystem services on which human societies depend often indirectly, such as plant and animal production, crop po llination, maintenance of wa ter quality and soil fertility, carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling, protection against pathogens and diseases, and resistance of ecosystems to disturbances and environmental changes; • it provides opportunities for human societies to adapt to changing needs and circumstances, and discover new products and technologies.

2. Biodiversity is being destroyed irreversibly by human activities Human alteration of their environment is having unprecedented effects on the distribution and a bundance of species, ecosystems, and the genetic variability of organisms. Species are currently being lost globally at a rate that is about 100 times faster than the average natural rate, and t ens of thousands of other species are already committed to future extinction because of the recent worldwide loss of their habitats. The primary causes underlying the loss of biodiversity are demographic, economic, and institutional factors, including increasing demands for land and b iological resources due t o the growth in the human population, world production, consumption and trade, associated with a failure of people and markets to take into account the long-term consequences of environmental changes and the full array of biodiversity values.

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Oaxaca Declaration on Biodiversity The scientists participating in the DIVERSITAS First Open Science Conference, Integrating biodiversity science for human well-being, held in Oaxaca, November 9-12, 2005, support the conclusions of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and of the Conference Biodiversity Science and Governance held in Paris in January 2005: 1. Biodiversity is our common natural heritage and the foundation for a wide variety of ecosystem services that are crucial to human well-being. 2 . Irreversible destruction of biodiversity is taking place globally as a result of human activities; there is insufficient political and public attention to its extent and consequences. 3. Mechanisms to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity have been developed at local, national and international levels; these need to be supported and considerably expanded. 4. Scientific knowledge of biodiversity must be substantially increased, but immediate actions must be taken to better protect biodiversity based on existing knowledge. Therefore, they call upon governments, policy makers and citizens: 1. to integrate biodiversity into the criteria considered in all economic and policy decisions that affect environmental management; 2 . to launch and support ambitious interdisciplinary research programmes to explore the Earth’s biodiversity, the ecological and socio-economic causes and consequences of its changes, and the best means to conserve and sustainably use it; 3. to commit resources to build and greatly expand th e capacity, especially in developing countries, to undertake biodiversity research and implement the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. In agreement with the recommendations of the Paris Conference, they urge national governments and United Nations bodies to establish a properly resourced international scientific panel that includes an intergovernmental component and that aims at providing, on a regular basis, validated and independent scientific information relating to biodiversity to governments, international conventions, non-governmental organisations, policy makers and the wider public.

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Towards an International Mechanism of Scientific Expertise on Biodiversity (IMoSEB) • The French government is currently funding a consultative process to assess the need, scope and possible models for an IMoSEB • Some critical features of an IMoSEB: – have a direct link to, and be funded by, governments to inform their negotiations and lead to action – be objective and independent – be transparent and representative – generate clear, readily accessible information allowing definition of clear targets for action – build synergy with existing mechanisms Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Assessing the need and scope of an IMoSEB • Key issues to be addressed during the consultative process: – Is there a need for such a mechanism? – What would its added value be compared with existing mechanisms? – Who would its audience and stakeholders be? – What information do national governments and international bodies need on biodiversity? – What would its mandate and governance structure be? – What would its relationships with international conventions be? – How would it be funded? – … Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Organisation of the consultative process • Led by an International Steering Committee and an Executive Committee involving scientists and policy makers (co-chairs: Michel Loreau and Alfred Oteng-Yeboah) • Executive secretariat based in France

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Phase 1 of the consultative process (2006): A limited set of case studies Objectives :

- Identify gaps between science and decision making in various areas - Identify lessons and options for a possible mechanism



Mapping out the decision-making landscape affecting biodiversity



Case studies on the mobilisation and use of scientific expertise



Analysing existing models for delivering scientific expertise

Michel Loreau

The case of Mexico The case of avian flu Incorporating indigenous and traditional knowledge

Lessons from previous and current assessments Lessons from management of invasive species Lessons from fisheries Use of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment for decision-making

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Phase 1 of the consultative process (2006): Communication • Presentation and discussion at various events • Media coverage • Website with an open electronic forum

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Phase 2 of the consultative process (2007): Regional and targeted consultations •

Second Executive Committee meeting, Paris, Dec 2006 - Analysis of the results of Phase 1 - Identification of needs and first options for a possible IMoSEB - Definition of a strategic plan for future consultations



Regional consultations



Targeted consultations with key stakeholders and initiatives

Michel Loreau

– – – –

North America (Montreal, Canada, January 2007) Africa (Yaounde, Cameroon March 2007) Europe (Geneva, Switzerland, April 2007) Others still to be organised

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Phase 2 of the consultative process (2007): Needs 1. To bring insights from the relevant sciences and other forms of knowledge to bear on local/national decisions that affect biodiversity where those decisions have international consequences 2. To provide independent scientific information from all relevant sources to support the work of international conventions and institutions, with particular emphasis on the CBD 3. To enhance our capacity to predict the consequences of current actions affecting biodiversity, drawing on the sciences of both natural and social systems 4. To provide, proactively, scientific advice on emerging threats and issues associated with biodiversity change identified either by science or by stakeholders Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Phase 2 of the consultative process (2007): Needs 5. To communicate scientific results on biodiversity to wider relevant audiences 6. To provide scientific support to existing biodiversity and related monitoring and assessment exercises, and potentially to supplement these as necessary 7. To reduce the time lag between the publication of scientific results on biodiversity and their incorporation in decisionprocesses 8. To inform science and science funding agencies about biodiversity research priorities implied by decision-maker’s concerns Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Phase 2 of the consultative process (2007): Options • Option 1: A partnership of existing mechanisms delivering science to national and international decision-making bodies • Option 2: A new mechanism, mechanism modeled loosely on the IPCC, but with both intergovernmental and nongovernmental components • Option 3: Invite IPCC to consider developing a biodiversity aspect to their activity • Option 4: Strengthen existing networks of scientists to feed science, standards and principles into various fora through a small coordination mechanism Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Conclusion of the consultative process • Final recommendations and proposals by the International Steering Committee, end of 2007 • Recommendation / decision at CBD CoP 9, May 2008? • Implementation

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Whatever its outcome, the consultative process towards an IMoSEB is a unique opportunity • to make biodiversity science and governance move forward • to fill the gap between biodiversity science and policy • to find new ways of facing the current biodiversity crisis

Michel Loreau

Conserver, exploiter, partager. Les enjeux de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur la diversité biologique Colloque 17-18 mai 2007, Jardin botanique de Montréal

Thank you !