Human Anatomy and Physiology I Laboratory

Human Anatomy and Physiology I Laboratory Articulations and Body Movements ... lubricates the movement of the joint. Ext...

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Human Anatomy and Physiology I Laboratory Articulations and Body Movements

This lab involves study of the laboratory exercise “Articulations and Body Movements”, completing the Review Sheet for the exercise, and taking the relevant quiz. Click on the sound icon for the audio file (mp3 format) for each slide. There is also a link to a dowloadable mp4 video which can be played on an iPod. You will note that there are more bones and contours in the lab manual than are identified in this PDF. The PDF focuses on only the most important.


Classification of Joints by Movement • Synarthroses (synarthrotic joints) – non movable most fibrous joints e.g. sutures • Amphiarthroses (amphiarthrotic joints) – semimovable mostly cartilaginous e.g. intervertebral disks • Diarthroses (diarthrotic joints) – movable joints synovial joints

Joints can be classified according to their degree of movement, and also their structure. Non-movable joints are fibrous, i.e. they have dense regular (fibrous) connective tissue holding the bones together. Semimovable joints are mostly cartilaginous, while movable joints have a joint capsule composed of synovial membrane.


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Classification of Joints by Structure Fibrous joints – composed of fibrous (inelastic) connective tissue. sutures – between cranial bones syndesmoses – e.g. tibia-fibular joint, sternum-clavicle and acromion-clavicle.

Most of the fibrous joints are non-movable, such as the sutures and the joints between the tibia and fibula. But certain fibrous joints can move slightly, for example the joints between the clavicle and the scapula and sternum.


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Synovial Joints • movable joints • contain a joint capsule of synovial membrane

Synovial joints are the movable joints, each utilizing a synovial sack as the lubrication for joint movement. The synovial sack secretes synovial fluid into the joint cavity which is surrounded by the joint capsule.


Structure of a Synovial Joint periosteum Extracapsular ligament Fibrous capsule


Synovial membrane

Joint cavity

Articular capsule

Articular cartilage

The joint cavity inside the articular capsule is filled with synovial fluid which lubricates the movement of the joint. Extracapsular ligaments are found on virtually all synovial joints, as well as some other joints. They hold the bones in position. Certain synovial joints, for example the knee, also have intracapsular ligaments. These control degree and direction of movement.


Plane or Gliding Joint

Gliding or planar joints – bones slide against one another. e.g. between carpals or tarsals

A Plane joint is a non-axial joint. Its sliding movement allows flexibility of the wrist and ankle.


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Gliding Movement is Non-axial

When the bones of the wrist move against one another, the don’t move in a particular axis, they slide or glide. Therefore these joints are called non-axial joints.


Hinge Joints

The axis runs through the joint from side to side.

e.g. elbow, knee.

Hinge joints are uniaxial joints, they move in one plane or on one axis only. Flexion and extension are the reciprocal movements at these joints.


Movements at Uniaxial Joints: 180o Flexion – decreasing the angle between two bones or parts. •Begin at anatomical position •Reduce angle from 180o

Consider each movement beginning with the body in anatomical position. A straight line drawn through the body indicates angles of 180 degrees at anatomical position. Reducing those angles ofr knee or brachium produces flexion.


Extension– increasing the angle between two bones or

parts. Beyond anatomical position is hyperextension Increase angle back to anatomical position

Return to anatomical position

Some of the terms for these movements are not intuitive. You need to remember that they are relative to normal anatomical position.




Flexion and Extension of the Verterbral Column

Extension When When extension extension proceeds proceeds beyond beyond anatomical anatomical position position itit is called is called hyperextension. hyperextension. The line of reference runs cephalo-caudally (direction from head to tail) through the body.


Flexion and Extension of the Head Extension Flexion Flexion Hyperextension

The line of reference runs cephalo-caudally through the body.


Pivot Joints

e.g. radius with ulna and humerus, atlas-axis The Axis runs throught the length of the bone

Pivot joints are also uniaxial, the one axis being in the center of the movement.


Rotation of the Head and Thigh

The brachium also rotates in the shoulder joint. To best demonstrate and distinguish between pronation and supination, first bend the elbow.


Rotation of the Radius Supination – to move palm up

Pronation – to move palm down

Despite popular usage, supination and pronation refer only to the hand.


Condyloid Joint

Phalange-metacarpal, Carpal-metacarpal, occipito-atlas and tibiatalus joints.

Condyloid and saddle joints are very similar with slightly different shapes. Both are biaxial joints. The movements performed are flexion, extension, adduction, and abudction, along with circumduction, a combination of the other four.


Saddle Joint

The saddle joint is just a special version of a condyloid joint, found only at the carpo-metacarpal joint of the thumb.


Abduction – to move away from the midline or apart.

Adduction – to move toward the midline or together.

Additional Movements at Biaxial Joints

Circumduction – a sequence of movements in which one end inscribes a circle.

Adduction and abduction are side-to-side movements: in adduction the parts move together or toward the midline, in abduction they move apart or away from the midline. All the biaxial as well as the multi-axial joints can perform these movements.


Ball-and-Socket Joints Shoulder and hip joint

Ball-and-socket joints are multi-axial. They can perform all of the movements


Movements of the Foot dorsiflexion: point toes up

plantarflexion: point toes down

Movements of the foot are given special names depending on whether they point the toes up (dorsiflexion) or down (plantar flexion).


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Inversion and Eversion Inversion, incorrectly called supination

Eversion, incorrectly called pronation

Left foot

Side to side movement is according to which way the sole of the foot points.


The Elbow Joint

Tendon of biceps b. trochlea Tendon of triceps b. Articular cartilage

synovial cavity

Trochlear notch

The elbow is a hinge joint. Note the joint capsule which encloses the joint cavity, filled with synovial fluid; Also bursae which help lubricate the movement.


Annular ligament Articular capsule

Radial (lateral) collateral ligament

The radial head fits neatly in the collar produced by the annular ligament and turns within this collar. Other primary ligaments are the radial (lateral) collateral ligament and the ulnar (medial) collateral ligament. These help to prevent lateral displacement of the bones at the joints.


Annular ligament

Ulnar (medial) collateral ligament

The annular ligament attaches to the lateral collateral ligament and to the ulna, so that the head of the radius is free to rotate.


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Elbow radiograph, lateral view


Trochlear notch

Soft tissues such as the articular capsule and articular cartilage are not radio opaque, so they appear dark in the x-ray.


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Elbow radiograph, dorsal view

Olecranon process

Head of the radius

The articular cartilage, not being radio-opaque, shows up clearly as a dark space between the bones.


Sagittal Section of The Right Knee Quadriceps tendon

Articular capsule Femur


Posterior cruciate ligament

Anterior cruciate ligament Tibia

Patellar ligament

The knee is the most complex of the joints, due to its menisci and intracapsular ligaments. It actually consists of three bones, the femur, tibia, and patella. The patella forms the fulcrum or pivot point for extension of the knee. And it translates the shortening action of the quadriceps muscle to its insertion on the tibial tuberosity.


Anterior View of the Right Knee Lateral condyle

Medial condyle

Fibular (lateral) collateral ligament

Tibial (medial) collateral ligament

Anterior cruciate ligament

Posterior cruciate ligament

Lateral meniscus

Medial meniscus Patellar ligament

Tibia Fibula

Patella Quadriceps tendon

This view into the joint cavity of the knee (anterior aspect) shows the menisci, crescent bowl-shaped cartilages which cushion the knee and provide accommodation for the shapes of each bone’s condyles. The ligaments cross, hence the name cruciate ligaments. This restricts anteroposterior sliding of the tibia against the fibula, as well as twisting of the joint.


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Femur Patella Condyles



Knee Radiograph Radiograph shows the space where the soft tissues are located between the bones.


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Lab Protocol 1. After studying the lab exercise and this PDF, complete the Review Sheet which accompanies the lab exercise. 2.

Use ADAM to study the joints as per directions in the lab manual.

3. Take the quiz on the arthrology. ADAM Interactive Anatomy 1. Open ADAM and select Atlas Anatomy. Select Region and Upper Limb. First select Flexed Elbow Posterior. An image of the elbow will appear in the preview window. Open this selection. Identify the pinned structures. Next open Flexed Elbow Lateral from the same upper limb region and identify the pinned structures. 2, From Atlas Anatomy select Region and Lower Limb. Select Knee Joint (Ant/Post) and Knee Joint (Post) and open these selections. Identify the pinned structures.