Annual report 2009 2010

dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf] cfly{s jif{ @)^^÷^& sf] jflif{s k|ltj]bg ljut sl/j b'O{ bzsb]lv ljleGg ljifodf cgf}krfl/s t/ uxg 5nkmn...

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dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf] cfly{s jif{ @)^^÷^& sf] jflif{s k|ltj]bg ljut sl/j b'O{ bzsb]lv ljleGg ljifodf cgf}krfl/s t/ uxg 5nkmn rnfpFb} cfPsf] dfl6{g rf}tf/Ln] xfn}sf jif{x¿df ax;–5nkmnsf cltl/Qm cg';Gwfg, k':ts÷hg{n k|sfzg, k':tsfno ;~rfng, d]G6l/ª nufotsf sfo{qmdx¿ ;~rfng ub{} cfO/x]sf] 5 . cfly{s jif{ -cf=j_ @)^^÷^& b]lv dfl6{g rf}tf/Ln] 8flg8f x'uf] (DanidaHUGOU) sf] /0fgLlts ;xof]uL ;+:yfsf] ¿kdf rf/ jif{;Dd sfd ug{sf nflu cg'bfg k|fKt u¥of] . klxnf] jif{sf] k|lta4tfcg'';f/ jflif{s sfo{of]hgf / ah]6cg'¿k cf=j= @)^^÷^& df rf}tf/Ln] ljleGg sfo{qmdx¿ sfof{Gojg u¥of] . o; k|ltj]bgdf rfn" cfly{s jif{ @)^^÷^& [email protected])^^ ;fpgb]lv @)^& c;f/ d;fGt;Dd_ df rf}tf/Ln] ;DkGg u/]sf sfdx¿sf] ljj/0f lbOPsf] 5 . != rf}tf/L 5nkmn z[Înf dfl6{g rf}tf/Ln] cfˆgf] :yfkgf sfnb]lv g} ljleGg ljifodf 5nkmn rnfpFb} cfPsf] 5 . /, cgf}krfl/s 5nkmn sfo{qmd rf}tf/Lsf] lrgf/L klg xf] . xfn 5nkmn z[ÎnfcGtu{t k|To]s cfOtaf/ cg';Gwfgsf ljifo, k|To]s dËnaf/ ljleGg ;d;fdlos ljifodf / k|To]s ljxLaf/ ldl8of;DaGwL 5nkmn x'G5 . cfly{s jif{ @)^^÷^& df dfl6{g rf}tf/Ldf hDdf !%@ cf]6f 5nkmn eP . cfOtaf/, dËnaf/ / laxLaf/sf] lgoldt 5nkmn z[Înfafx]s @! cf]6f cltl/Qm 5nkmn eP . o; jif{ ljbf / aGbsf sf/0f @! cf]6f 5nkmn x'g ;s]gg\ . o; cfly{s jif{df rf}tf/L 5nkmn ;+of]hgsf] lhDdf ;ËLtf kf08]n] lng'ePsf] lyof] . t/, d] @)!) b]lv pxfFn] ;+of]hgsf] sfo{af6 5'6\6L lng'eof] . k]ma|'c/L @)!) af6 cfOtaf/sf] 5nkmnnfO{ cg';Gwfgs]lGb|t ul/Psf] 5 . o;cl3 cGt/f{li6«o -c+u|]hL_ dlxgfsf] klxnf] cfOtaf/ ;flxTo÷k':ts, bf];|f] cfOtaf/ cg';Gwfg, t];|f] cfOtaf/ o'jf / k':ts / rf}yf] cfOtaf/ …g]kfndf s] eO/x]sf] 5 <Ú 5nkmn z[Înf ;~rfng eO/x]sf lyP . k]ma|'c/Lkl5 eg] cfOtaf/ eO/x]sf cg';Gwfgafx]ssf 5nkmn z[ÎnfnfO{ dËnaf/ ;fl/Psf] 5 . dfl6{g rf}tf/L;Fu ldn]/ n;gf snf ;d"xn] ;~rfng u/]sf] snf 5nkmn k|To]s dlxgfsf] clGtd dËnaf/ ;~rfng e}/x]sf] 5 . dlxnf jQmf / dlxnf;DaGwL ljifo nfO{ k|f]T;fxg ug{] k|of; hf/L 5 . dfr{ dlxgfe/Lsf !! cf]6f 5nkmndf dlxnf jQmf / ;xeflutf a9fpg ul/Psf] ljutb]lvsf] k|of;nfO{ o; jif{ -dfr{ @)!)_ klg lg/Gt/tf lbOof] .

!=! cfOtaf/]

o; cfly{s jif{df hDdf #( cf]6f cfOtaf/] 5nkmn eP . aGb / bz}+ ltxf/h:tf ljbfsf sf/0f !! cf]6f 5nkmn x'g ;s]gg\ . 5nkmnsf ljifo / jQmfsf] ljj/0f cg';"rL ! df lbOPsf] 5 .

[email protected] dËnaf/]

o; cfly{s jif{df hDdf $% cf]6f dËnaf/] 5nkmn eP . aGb / bz}+ ltxf/h:tf ljbfsf sf/0f & cf]6f 5nkmn x'g ;s]gg\ . 5nkmnsf ljifo / jQmfsf] ljj/0f cg';"rL @ df lbOPsf] 5 .

!=# laxLaf/] -ldl8of 5nkmn / lkmNd k|bz{g÷5nkmn_

laxLaf/ x'g] ldl8of 5nkmn z[ÎnfcGtu{t Ps xKtfdf 5nkmn / csf]{ xKtf lkmNd÷8s'd]G6«L k|bz{g x'g] u/]sf] 5 . o; cfly{s jif{df ljlxaf/] 5nkmn z[ÎnfcGtu{t hDdf $& cf]6f 5nkmn eP . h;dWo] @$ cf]6f 5nkmn / @# cf]6f lkmNd÷8s'd]G6«L k|bz{g tyf 5nkmn eP . aGb / bz}+ ltxf/h:tf ljbfsf sf/0f ^ cf]6f sfo{qmd x'g ;s]gg\ . 5nkmnsf ljifo / jQmfsf] ljj/0f cg';"rL # df lbOPsf] 5 .

!=$ cltl/Qm 5nkmn

rf}tf/Ldf xKtfsf] tLg lbg lgoldt ;~rfng x'g] 5nkmnafx]s o; jif{ @! cf]6f cltl/Qm 5nkmn eP . cltl/Qm 5nkmnsf ljifo / jQmfsf] ljj/0f cg';"rL $ df lbOPsf] 5 .

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o; cfly{s jif{df dfl6{g rf}tf/Ln] tLg cf]6f cGt/fli6«o:t/sf ;Ddn]gx¿ cfof]hgf / ;xcfof]hgf u¥of] . o'lgel;{6L ckm cf/x;, 8]gdfs{sf sl/g Eofn]lG6gsf] ljz]if kxndf ul/Psf] Nepal-Indo Migration in the Context of South Asian Mobility Pattern ljifos klxnf] ;Dd]ngsf] rf}tf/L ;xcfof]hs lyof] . ag]kf, w'lnv]ndf #–$ clk|n @)!) df ;DkGg o; ;Ddn]gdf 8]gdfs{, k|mfG;, hd{gL, ef/t, g]kfn / >LnÍfsf cg';Gwftfx¿sf bzcf]6f sfo{kq k|:t't ul/Psf lyP . ;Ddn]gdf @# cg';Gwftf ;xefuL lyP . dfl6{g rf}tf/L / ;f];n ;fOG; axfMsf] ;xcfof]hgfdf Conflict, Transition and Possibilities for Peace in Nepal: Challenges to Engagement, Practice and Scholarship ljifos csf]{ ;Dd]ng #–$ h'nfO{ @)!) df sf7df08'df ;DkGg eof] . ;Dd]ngsf] d'Vo cfof]hs 8f= l;n]g lx6g >]i7 / ?y df;{8gn] u/]sf lyP . ;Ddn]gdf g]kfnnufot ljleGg b]zsf cg';Gwftfn] !# cf]6f sfo{kq k|:t't u/]sf lyP . &! hgf ;xefuL /x]sf] pQm ;Dd]ngsf] vr{sf] ;fgf] lx:;f rf}tf/Ln] a]xf]/]sf] lyof] . dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf] lgdGq0ffdf >LnÍfaf6 8f= bfl/gL /fhfl;Ëd–;]gfgfos]n] o; ;Ddn]gdf efu lnPsL lyOg\ . ;Dd]ngdf k|:t't Pp6f sfo{kqdfly pgn] l6Kk0fL u/]sL lyOg\ eg] cfˆgf] PsxKt] g]kfn a;fOdf b'O{ 7fpFdf k|:t'lt lbPsL lyOg\ . To;dWo] Pp6f k|:t'lt cltl/Qm 5nkmnsf ¿kdf dfl6{g rf}tf/Ldf ePsf] lyof] -x]g'{xf];\ cg';"rL $_ . pgsf] e|d0f vr{ dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf] /0fgLlts ;xof]uL (strategic partner) gj]{lhog rr{ P8sf] sf]nf]Daf]l:yt sfof{non] a]xf]/]sf] lyof] . To:t}, of] cf=j= [email protected]^–@& clk|n @)!)_ df rf}tf/L :jo+n] cfkm\g} vr{df pRr lzIff If]qdf South Asia Conference: Enhancing Social Inclusion in Higher Education and Research ljifos cGt/f{li6«o ;Dd]ngsf] cfof]hgf u¥of] . o;af/] tn ^=!=# df yk rrf{ ul/Psf] 5 . @= k':ts÷hg{n k|sfzg k':ts÷hg{n k|sfzg rf}tf/Lsf] csf]{ lgoldt sfo{ xf] . o; cfly{s jif{df dfl6{g rf}tf/L k':ts z[ÎnfcGtu{t hDdf % cf]6f k':ts k|sflzt eP . k|sflzt k':tsx¿ lgDg 5g\ M != t/fO{–dw]; ;Gbe{ u|Gy -;g\ @))(, rf}tf/L k':ts z[Înf %$, ;Íns tLy{ lji6 / lr/g dfgGw/_ @= Education in Nepal: Problems, Reforms and Social Change (2009, Chautari Book Series #=

55, Pramod Bhatta, ed.) Developing Alternative Media Traditions in Nepal (2009, Chautari Book Series 56, Michael Wilmore)

$= /fHo k'gM;+/rgf / ;+ljwfg ;efM ;Gbe{ u|Gy -;g\ @))(, rf}tf/L k':ts z[Înf %&, ;Íns s}nfz /fO{ / lr/g dfgGw/_ %= ldl8of cWoog % -;g\ @)!), rf}tf/L k':ts z[Înf %*, b]j/fh x'dfufO{+, z]v/ k/fh'nL / k|To"if jGt, ;+=_ dfl6{g rf}tf/Laf6 of] cf=j=df k|sflzt ;a} kfFr cf]6f k':tssf ;dLIff g]kfnL 5fkfdf ePsf 5g\ . o;} u/L

Studies in Nepali History and Society sf Vol 13(2) / 14(1) b'O{ cÍ dfl6{g rf}tf/L ;d]tsf] ;+nUgtfdf tof/ u/L d08nf a's KjfOG6af6 k|sflzt eP . Vol 13(2) / 14(1) sf ljifo;"rL dfl6{g www.martinchautari.org.np/sinhas_vol_13_2.html / rf}tf/Lsf] j]a;fO6 lnª\s www.martinchautari.org.np/sinhas_14_1.html df pknAw 5g\ . Vol 14(2) sf] sfd klg k"/f

eO;s]sf] 5 / of] rfF8} k|];df hfFb}5 .

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g]kfn;DaGwL [email protected]@ n]vx¿ ;Ë[lxt 5g\ . ldl8ofafx]s /fhgLltzf:q, n}lËstf, lzIff, jftfj/0f, Oltxf;, wd{, :jf:Yo, cy{zf:q, ;flxTo cflb ljifosf k':tsx¿ klg pn]Vo dfqfdf k':tsfnodf 5g\ . ! ;fpg @)^^ b]lv @)^& ;fnsf] c;f/ d;fGt;Dddf hDdf @,^$( cf]6f k':tsx¿ k':tsfnodf ylkP . oLdWo] @,!)* cf]6f lslgPsf / afFsL %$! cf]6f k':tsx¿ pkxf/:j¿k rf}tf/L k':tsfnonfO{ k|fKt ePsf x'g\ . To:t}, o; k':tsfnodf [email protected] j6f b}lgs, !( j6f ;fKtflxs / !( j6f Dofulhg lgoldt ¿kdf cfpF5g\ . Rff}tf/L k':tsfnonfO{ yk Jojl:yt ug{ @! ;fpg @)^^ b]lv 5'§} cWoog–sIfsf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . /, ;f]xL ejgdf k'/fgf klqsfx? klg /flvPsf] 5 . t}klg rf}tf/L k':tsfnodf kqklqsfsf nflu 7fpFsf] cefj k'gM b]lvPsf] 5 . k':tssf] a9\bf] rfk oyfjt 5 . o; cfly{s jif{df nfOa|]/L Dofg'cn tof/ ePsf] 5 . Dofg'cndf k':tsfnosf ;fdu|Lsf] ;Íng, Joj:yfkg, ;'/Iff, k':tsfno vf]Ng]÷aGb ug]{ ;do / k':tsfnosf sd{rf/Laf/] lj:t[tdf rrf{ ul/Psf] 5 . $= ldl8of cg';Gwfg OsfO ldl8of cg';Gwfg sfo{qmdcGtu{t o; jif{ z]v/ k/fh'nL, b]j/fh x'dfufO{+, xif{dfg dxh{g / ch'{g kGyL ldn]/ g]kfndf ldl8of tflndsf] cEof;af/] cg';Gwfg ug]{ sfd eof] . cf]kg ;f];fO6L OlG:6Ro'6 -cf]P;cfO{_ sf] cfly{s ;xof]udf ;DkGg o; cWoogsf] pkhsf] ¿kdf cª\u|]hL efiffdf cg';Gwfg k|ltj]bg tof/ kfl/of] . cg';Gwfgstf{x¿åf/f ;'?df g]kfnLdf n]lvPsf] ;f] k|ltj]bgsf] d:of}bfnfO{ k|To"if jGt, /d]z k/fh'nL, /fd ltjf/L, /ZdL 8+uf]n tyf pd]z /]UdLn] cª\u|]hLdf cg'jfb ug'{ ePsf] xf] . hDdf ;ft cWofodf ljeflht pQm cg';Gwfg k|ltj]bg cf]P;cfO{nufot ;/f]sf/jfnf cGo ;+:yfx¿df k'; @)^^ -hgj/L @)!)_df ljt/0f ul/of] . ck|sflzt k|ltj]bg tof/ ePkl5 To;nfO{ g]kfnL efiffdf k':tssf ¿kdf k|sfzg ug]{ of]hgf ag]sf] 5 . cg';Gwfgdf cfjZos vr{ u/L ar]sf] s]xL /sd -sl/a ?= #),)))_ k':ts k|sfzgdf vr{ ug]{ tyf cfof]hgfsf] cjlw cu:t @)!) cGTo;Dd yk ul/lbg cfP;cfO{nfO{ cg'/f]w ul/of] . pQm ;+:yfn] :jLs[lt hgfPkl5 s]xL yk cg';Gwfg u/L klxn]sf] g]kfnL d:of}bfdf kl/dfh{g ug]{ sfd clGtd r/0fdf k'lu;s]sf] 5 . lgwf{l/t ldlt -cu:t @)!)_ leq} k':ts k|sfzg ug]{ of]hgf 5 . oxL jif{ dfOsn ljNdf]/sf] k':ts Developing Alternative Media Traditions in Nepal sf] blIf0f Pl;of ;+:s/0fsf ¿kdf dfl6{g rf}tf/Ln] k'gMd'b|0f u¥of] . ;g\ @))* df n]lS;ª\6g a'S;n] k|sfzg u/]sf] of] k':tsnfO{ pQm k|sfzs tyf n]vs;Fu :jLs[lt lnP/ k'gMd'b|0f ul/Psf] xf] . jflif{s ldl8of hg{n ldl8of cWoogsf] kfFrf}F cÍ @)^& -;g\ @)!)_ o; cfly{s jif{df k|sflzt eof] . hDdf #^) k]hsf] of] hg{ndf !* n]vssf ljleGg ;fdu|L 5flkPsf] 5 . hg{nsf] o; cÍsf] ;+of]hg / ;Dkfbg b]j/fh x'dfufO+{, z]v/ k/fh'nL / k|To"if jGtn] ug'{ePsf] xf] . o; hg{ndf dfl6{g rf}tf/Lleq}af6 xif{dfg dxh{g, cg'ej chLt / ch'{g kGyLn] tof/ ug'{ePsf cg';GwfgfTds n]v k/]sf 5g\ . ;fy} ;g\ @))( df rf}tf/L ldl8of k]mnf]l;k kfpg] OGb|Wjh If]qLsf] n]v klg ToxfF k/]sf] 5 . o; hg{nsf] ljifo;"rL www.martinchautari.org.np/back_issue_media_adhyayan_5_2010.html df pknAw 5 . dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf] jflif{s of]hgf tyf sfo{qmddf pNn]v eP klg o; jif{ @ cf]6f k':ts k|sfzg x'g ;s]gg\ . Pp6f k':ts ldl8of / åGåaf/] k"j{ k|sflzt tyf gofF n]vx¿ /fv]/ k|sfzg ug]{ of]hgf lyof] . t/, kof{Kt n]vx¿ k|fKt gePsfn] k':ts k|sfzg ug{ ;lsPg . of] k':tsdf /fVg] p2]on] n]Vg nufOPsf] s[i0f clwsf/L / t'nfgf/fo0f ;fxsf b'O{ cf]6f n]v ldl8of cWoogsf] kfFrf}F cÍdf k|sfzg ul/of] . To;}u/L, csf]{ k':ts blnt / ldl8ofaf/] lyof] . dfl6{g rf}tf/L aflx/sf n]vs h]=jL= ljZjsdf{n] cfˆgf] sfo{ Jo:ttfsf sf/0f ;dod} kf08'lnkL pknAw u/fpg g;Sbf of] jif{ pQm k':ts k|sfzg x'g ;s]g . of] k':ts cufdL cf=j=sf] dWolt/ k|sfzg ug]{ of]hgf 5 . ldl8of km]nf]l;k @))( kfPsf ^ cg';GwftfdWo] % n] cfˆgf] sfd ;s]/ k|ltj]bg / ;f] cfwf/df tof/ kfl/Psf] g]kfnL n]v a'emfP . Ps hgfn] eg] clGtd ;dodf cfP/ cfˆgf] JolQmut sf/0fn] cg';GWffg k"/f ug{ g;Sg] egL lgj]bg lbP . sfd k"/f gePsfn] pgn] kfpg] afFsL tLg rf}yfO{ /sd -Ps rf}yfO{ /sd ;'?df ;Demf}tf b'j} kIfn] x:tfIf/ u/]sf] ldltdf lbOPsf] lyof]_ /f]Ssf u/L pgnfO{ ljbf lbOof] . n]v a'emfpg]dWo] OGb|Wjh If]qLsf] n]v ldl8of cWoogsf] kfFrf}F cÍdf 5flkP klg cGo rf/ hgfsf] n]v eg] cfjZos k'gn]{vg / kl/dfh{g kl5 ;f]xL hg{nsf] cfufdL cÍdf 5fKg] of]hgf 5 . cfufdL cfly{s jif{ 3

@)^&÷^* df lbOg] ldl8of km]nf]l;k @)!) sf nflu klg cfj]bg cfXjfg u/L # hgf zf]wstf{x¿ 5gf]6 ug]{ sfd eO;s]sf] 5 . pgLx¿sf] k|:tfjdf cfjZostfcg';f/ s]xL kl/dfh{gkZrft @)^& ebf}b]lv sfd ;'? ug]{ u/L pgLx¿;Fu ^ dlxgfsf] ;Demf}tf ePsf] 5 . x/]snfO{ krf; xhf/ ?lkofsf b/n] km]nf]l;k k|bfg ul/Psf] 5. dfl6{g rf}tf/Ldf lgoldt x'g] ldl8of 5nkmnaf/] lalxaf/] 5nkmn zLif{scGtu{t rrf{ e};Sof] . To; cltl/Qm o;} kl/of]hgfcGtu{t tLgcf]6f ljz]if cGtlq{mof sfo{qmdx¿ klg ul/Psf lyP . tLdWo] …5fkf dfWoddf a9\bf] k|lt:kwf{ M o'jf kqsf/sf cj;/ / Jofj;flostfsf] ;Gbe{Ú ljifos klxnf] sfo{qmd $ ebf} @)^^ df s'kG8f]nl:yt xf]6n lxdfnodf ;DkGg eof] . bf];|f] sfo{qmd …;~rf/dfWoddf ;+ljwfg;ef;DaGwL se/]hÚ zLif{sdf kmfu'g !# ut] dfl6{g rf}tf/Ldf cfof]hgf ul/of] . oL b'j} sfo{qmd ;fdflhs ;+jfbsf nflu ;xsfo{ -PP;8L_ ;Fu ldn]/ ul/Psf lyof] . csf]{ sfo{qmd …g]kfnL ldl8ofdf cfly{s–/fhgLlts k|efjÚ zLif{sdf dfl6{g rf}tf/Ldf # c;f/ @)^& df ul/Psf] lyof] . dfl6{g rf}tf/Ln] o;} jif{ klxnf] k6s …ldl8of cg';Gwfg ;Dd]ng @)!)Ú cfof]hgf u¥of] . of] ;DejtM g]kfndf cfof]lht klxnf] ldl8of cg';Gwfg ;Dd]ng xf] . o;sf nflu cg';Gwfgsf] ;f/;lxtsf] cfj]bg cfXjfg u/]cg'¿k hDdf @@ hgfsf] cfj]bg k/]sf] lyof] . To;dWo] [email protected] hgfnfO{ 5gf]6 u/L cg';Gwfg kq k|:t'tLsf] df}sf lbOof] . @)^^ r}t [email protected]–!# df cfof]hgf ul/Psf] pQm ;Dd]ngdf 5fkfdfWodsf] cEof; / ldl8of cg';Gwfg;DaGwL b'O{cf]6f 5'§f5'§} Kofgn 5nkmn klg ePsf] lyof] . o:tf] ;Dd]ng x/]s jif{ ub}{ hfg] of]hgf 5 . o;} jif{sf] ;'?df ldl8of cg';Gwfg ;d"xsf ;b:o s[i0f clwsf/L / jif{sf] clGtd ;dolt/ csf{ ;b:o z]v/ k/fh'nLn] dfl6{g rf}tf/Laf6 cjsf; lng'eof] . ;fwf/0f ;b:osf ¿kdf eg] pxfFx¿ b'j} rf}tf/L;Fu ;+j4 x'g'x'G5 . %= nf]stGq / zf;gk2lt -democracy and governance_ OsfO dfl6{g rf}tf/Ln] cf=j= @)^^–^& df democracy and governance zLif{scGtu{t ljleGg sfo{j|mdx¿ k|:tfj u/]sf] lyof] h;dWo] ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f k|lj|mofnfO{ glhsaf6 cg'udg ug]{, ;+ljwfg;efdf p7\g] of p7fOg' kg]{ dlxnf tyf jlxis[t ;d'bfo Pj+ ;+3Lotf, If]qLotf h:tf d'2fx¿nfO{ hgdfg;df k'¥ofO{ ljleGg tx––/fli6«o, If]qLo, :yfgLo––df ;3g cGt/lj|mofTds 5nkmn u/fpg] nIo /flvPsf] lyof] . ;f]xLcg'¿k cf=j= @)^^÷^& df lgDg sfo{x¿ ;DkGg eP .

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dfly elgPem}F rf}tf/Ln] ;+ljwfg;efnfO{ s]Gb|ljGb'df /fv]/ o; cfly{s jif{df b'O{ cf]6f gLltkq -gLltkq @M ;':t ultdf ;+ljwfg n]vg k|lj|mof, @)^^ sflt{s, / gLltkq #M ;+j}wflgs hl6ntf / ;+j|md0fsfnLg of]hgf, @)^& j}zfv_ k|sfzg ul/;s]sf] 5 . gLltkq ! cl3Nnf] cf=j=df k|sfzg ePsf] lyof] . gLltkq $ sf] d:of}bf klg ;lsPsf] 5, / csf]{ cfly{s jif{sf] ;'?lt/ k|sfzg x'g]5 . gLltkqx¿ c+u|]hLdf / g]kfnL b'j} efiffdf 5fk]/ Aofks ljt/0f ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 . k|To]s cÍ g]kfnLdf @ xhf/ k|lt / c+u|]hLdf ! xhf/ k|lt 5flkPsf] lyof] . oL kqx¿ rf}tf/Lsf] j]a;fO6df /fVg] ul/Psf] 5 . Od]ndfkm{t klg ljleGg JolQm of ;+:yfx¿;Dd ln+s k7fOPsf] 5 . ?lr x'g] hf];'s}n] ;lhn} o;nfO{ 8fpgnf]8 ug{ ;S5g\ . To:t} ;f] kq l8lh6n lxdfno gfds j]a;fO6df klg /flvPsf] 5 . gLlt kq ! / @ nfO{ ;fdfGo kl/dfh{g;lxt Studies in Nepali History and Society hg{ndf klg k|sfzg ul/Psf] 5 .

%[email protected] ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f k|lj|mof;DaGwL 5nkmn

dfl6{g rf}tf/Ln] of] cfly{s jif{df ;+ljwfg;efdf eP–u/]sf sfd–sf/jfxL / pl7/x]sf d'2fx¿nfO{ lnP/ b]zleqsf rf/ :yfgdf uxg cGt/lj|mofTds 5nkmn rnfpg] of]hgf agfPsf] lyof] . ;f]xLcg'¿k sfe|], tgx'F, wgs'6f / a}t8Ldf …;+ljwfg lgdf{0f k|lj|mofsf ax;x¿Ú zLif{scGtu{t cGt/lj|mofTds ax;–5nkmnsf sfo{x¿ ;DkGg ul/P . sfo{j|mdx¿df k|d'v jQmfsf] ¿kdf /fhgLlts ljZn]ifs, ;ef;b\, /fhgLltsdL{x¿ /x]sf lyP . To;}u/L ;xefuLx¿ ljleGg lhNnfsf /fhgLltsdL{, clwsf/sdL{, :jtGq JolQmTj, ;~rf/sdL{nufotsf /x]sf lyP . sfo{j|mddf k|d'v jQmfsf] ljrf/sf] cnfjf dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf tkm{af6 ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f k|lj|mofsf j|mddf 4

p7]sf ax;x¿sf] ;+lIfKt vfsf k|:t't ul/Psf] lyof] eg] rf}tf/Ln] k|sfzg u/]sf gLltkqx¿ klg ljt/0f ul/Psf] lyof] .

-c_ ag]kfM sfe|] lhNnfsf] ag]kfdf …;+ljwfg lgdf{0f k|lj|mofsf /fhgLlts ax;x¿Ú ljifos Pslbg] sfo{j|md

d+unaf/, @& ;fpg @)^^ -!! cui6 @))(_ df ;DkGg eof] . sfo{j|mddf k|fWofks s[i0f vgfn, dfgj clwsf/sdL{ s[i0f kxf8L, ;ef;b\x¿ bLks'df/ pkfWofo -g]sf_, yddfof yfkfdu/ -g]skf Pdfn]_, uf]kfn 7fs'/ -g]skf Pdfn]_ / s[i0f ;fksf]6f -g]skf Pdfn]_ nufotsf k|d'v jQmfx¿n] ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f k|lj|mof;DaGwL cfcfˆgf] b[li6sf]0f /fv]sf lyP . sfo{j|mddf eQmk'/, sfe|], l;Gw'kfNrf]s / bf]nvf lhNnfaf6 u/L [email protected] hgf ;xefuL ePsf lyP h;dWo] ^& k'?if / $% dlxnf lyP .

-cf_ bdf}nLM tgx'Fsf] bdf}nLdf d+unaf/, #) ebf} @)^^ -!% ;]K6]Da/ @))(_ df bf];|f] sfo{j|md ;DkGg eof] .

sfo{j|mddf k|fWofks s[i0f vgfn, /fhgLlts ljZn]ifs ´ns ;'j]bL, kqsf/ /fhs'df/ /]UdL -cGgk"0f{ kf]i6_, ;ef;b\x¿ /jLGb| clwsf/L -g]skf Pdfn]_, ;flaqf u'?ª b'/f -Pg]skf–dfcf]jfbL_, kfj{tL yfkf -g]sf_, a'l4dfg u'?ª -Pg]skf–dfcf]jfbL_ jQmfsf ¿kdf /x]sf lyP . ndh'ª, tgx'F, sf:sL, lrtjg lhNnfaf6 cfPsf (* ;xefuLdWo] ^@ k'?if / #^ dlxnf lyP .

-O_ kfv|Ljf;M wgs'6fsf] kfv|Ljf;df cfOtaf/, @( sflt{s @)^^ -!% gf]e]Da/ @))(_ df t];|f] 5nkmn sfo{j|md ;DkGg eof] . sfo{j|mddf k|fWofks s[i0f vgfn, n]vs vu]Gb| ;+u|f}nf k|d'v jQmf lyP . ;'g;/L, ef]hk'/, t]x|y'd, ;+v'jf;ef h:tf l5d]ssf lhNnfaf6 ;xefuLx¿ cfPsf lyP . s"n !)@ ;xefuLdWo] &) hgf k'?if / #@ dlxnf lyP . -O{_ kf6gM rf}yf] sfo{j|md a}t8Lsf] kf6gdf $ r}t @)^^ df -!& dfr{ @)!)_ ;DkGg eof] . sfo{j|mddf

k|fWofks s[i0f vgfn / ;ef;b\ z]/axfb'/ s'Fj/ -g]skf Pdfn]_ k|d'v jQmfsf ¿kdf /x]sf lyP . pQm sfo{j|mddf c5fd, 8f]6L, 88]nw'/f, bfr'{nf nufotsf lhNnfaf6 !& dlxnf / *) k'?if u/L hDdf (& hgfsf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] .

%=# g]kfnL /fli6«otf / /fli6«o klxrfg;DaGwL ax;

/fhtGq, lxGb" wd{ / g]kfnL efiffsf] tLg vDafdf cfwfl/t k'/fgf] g]kfnL /fli6«otf / g]kfnL /fli6«o klxrfgsf] cjwf/0ff @)$^ ;fnkl5 g} sdhf]/ x'Fb} uPsf] lyof] h'g @)^@–^# ;fnsf] hgcfGbf]ngkl5 Wj:tk|foM eof] . To:t}, ljleGg ;d'bfoaLr cfcfˆgf] ;d'bfosf] :jfy{ cl3 a9fpg] k|lt:kwf{ rNbf sltko :yfgdf ;fdflhs ;b\efj klg vNalng k'u]sf] 5 . k'/fgf cjwf/0ff, klxrfg sfd gnfUg] / gofF ;[hgf e}g;s]sf] kl/k|]Iodf b]lvPsf] vf8n, c;d~h;nfO{ k'g{sf nflu rf}tf/Ln] g]kfnL /fli6«o klxrfg, g]kfnL /fli6«otf;DaGwL ;[hgfTds ax; z'¿ ug]{ nIo /fv]sf] lyof] . ;f]xLcg'¿k g]kfnL /fli6«o klxrfg, g]kfnL /fli6«otf;DaGwL ;f]rkq tof/ ug]{ / pQm cjwf/0ffnfO{ lnP/ d'n'ssf ljleGg kfFr 7fpFdf :yfgLo / If]qLo cGt/lqmofTds sfo{qmd ug]{ of]hgf lyof] . n]vs ;Ls] nfnnfO{ pQm ljifodf ;f]rkq tof/ ug{ cfu|x ul/Pcg'¿k ;f] kq k|fKt ePkl5 cfly{s jif{df ;f] ;f]rkq / rf}tf/Ln] tof/ kf/]sf] g]kfnL /fli6«o klxrfgaf/]sf] ;+lIfKt vfsfsf] cfwf/df g]kfnL /fli6«otfaf/] sf7df08";lxt kfFr :yfgdf 5nkmn cfof]hgf ul/of] . o:tf 5nkmn c´ a9L uxg xf]cf];\ eg]/ sfo{j|md x'g' Ps–b'O{ xKtf klxn] g} ;xefuLx¿nfO{ ;f]rkq klg pknAw u/fOPsf] lyof] . pkTosf aflx/sf lhNnfx¿df /fli6«otf / /fli6«o lje"ltsf ;Gbe{df k|ZgfjnLdfkm{t dt ;+sng;d]t ul/Psf] lyof] . o; cf=j=df ;DkGg sfo{j|mdx¿sf] ljj/0f tn lbOPsf] 5 . . nfnlnlvt …g]kfnLo x'gnfO{===Ú zLif{ssf] pQm ;f]rkq Studies in Nepali History and Society hg{ndf 5flkFb}5 . cfpFbf] cfly{s jif{df ;f] kqdfly ul/Psf l6Kk0fL;d]t ;fd]n u/]/ k':tsfsf/ ¿kdf k|sfzg ul/g]5 .

-c_ nlntk'/M nlntk'/sf] k'Nrf]sdf [email protected] kmfu'g @)^^ [email protected]$ km]a|'c/L @)!)_ df g]kfnL /fli6«otfaf/]sf] ax;

sfo{j|md ;DkGg eof] . ;f] cj;/df ;Ls] nfnn] ;f]rkq k|:t't u/]kl5 v'nf 5nkmn ePsf] lyof] . sfo{qmddf Pg]skf–dfcf]jfbLsf afa'/fd e6\6/fO{, g]sfsf g/xl/ cfrfo{, dw];L hgflwsf/ kmf]/dsf hok|sfz u'Ktfnufot 5

gful/s cfGbf]ngsdL{ b]j]Gb|/fh kf08], n]vs vu]Gb| ;+u|f}nf, cle ;'j]bL cflb n]vs, a'l4hLjL, clwsf/sdL{, kqsf/, ;+:s[ltsdL{x¿n] cf–cfˆgf] ljrf/ /fv]sf lyP . !) dlxnf &# k'?if u/L hDdf *# hgf ;xefuLx¿ sfo{j|mddf pkl:yt lyP .

-cf_ sf7df8f}FM dfl6{g rf}tf/Ls} 5nkmn sIfdf & h]7 @)^& [email protected]! d] @)!)_ df bf];|f] sfo{j|md ;DkGg eof] .

;Ls] nfnn] ;f]rkqdfly k|sfz kf/]kl5 v'nf 5nkmn ul/Psf] lyof] . rj|m af:tf]nf -g]sf_, x[bo]z lqkf7L tdnf]kf_, uf]ljGb/fh hf]zL -g]sf_, kb\dnfn ljZjsdf{ -Pg]skf dfcf]jfbL_, uf]/]axfb'/ vkf+uL, cflb /fhgLlts bnsf g]tfnuoft a'l4hLjL, clwsf/sdL{, k|f1 tyf kqsf/x¿sf] pQm sfo{j|mddf ;xeflutf lyof] . sfo{j|mddf #& k'?if [email protected] dlxnf u/L hDdf $( ;xefuL lyP .

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sfo{j|md ;DkGg eP . sfo{j|mdsf] k|d'v jQmfsf ¿kdf ;Ls] nfn / vu]Gb| ;+u|f}nf /x]sf lyP . ;Ls] nfnn] ;f]rkqdfly cfwfl/t /xL cfˆgf] b[li6sf]0f k|:t't u/]kl5 v'nf 5nkmn ePsf] lyof] . vu]Gb| ;+u|f}nfn] sfo{j|mdsf] ;dfkg ub}{ cfˆgf] ljZn]if0f /fv]sf lyP . b'j} sfo{j|mddf u/L hDdf !%) hgf ;xefuL /x]sf lyP . To;dWo] !% hgf dlxnf ;xefuL lyP . sfo{j|mddf ljleGg /fhgLlts bnsf k|ltlglw, lzIfs, clwsf/sdL{, ;~rf/sdL{, ljBfyL{nufotsf] pkl:ylt lyof] .

-O{_ l;Gw'nLM l;Gw'nLsf] sdnfdfO{ gu/kflnsfdf #) h]7 @)^& -!# h'g @)!)_ df g]kfnL /fli6«otf / g]kfnL

/fli6«o klxrfgaf/]sf] cGt/lj|mof sfo{j|md ;DkGg eof] . sfo{j|mddf k|d'v jQmfsf] ¿kdf vu]Gb| ;+u|f}nf / :yfgLo jQmfsf] ¿kdf df]xg a/fn -g]sf_ /x]sf lyP . ;Ls] nfnsf] ;f]rkqdf cfwfl/t dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf tkm{af6 ;+lIfKt vfsf / vu]Gb| ;+u|f}nfsf] ljrf/ k|:t't u/]kl5 v'nf 5nkmn eof] . sfo{j|mddf ljleGg bnsf k|ltlglw, clwsf/sdL{, ljBfyL{, lzIfs, jlsn, ;~rf/sdL{, cflb u/L sl/j Ps ;o hgfsf] ;xeflutf /Xof] h;dWo] !! dlxnf lyP .

-p_ dsjfgk'/M dsjfgk'/sf] lkKn]df #) c;f/ @)^& df g]kfnL /fli6«otf / /fli6«o klxrfg ljifos

If]qLo:t/sf] sfo{j|mdsf] cfof]hgf ul/of] . ;Ls] nfn lnlvt …g]kfnLo x'gnfO{===Ú zLif{ssf] ;f]rkq sfo{j|md tof/Lqmddf, Psfw ;ftfcl3 ljt/0f ul/Psf] lyof] . sfo{j|mddf klxn] ;f]rkqsf n]vs nfnn] ;+jf]wg u/]kl5 v'nf 5nkmn ul/Psf] lyof] . ;xefuLx¿n] p7fPsf k|Zgx¿sf] hjfkm n]vsn] lbg'ePsf] lyof] . csf{ k|d'v JolQmTj vu]Gb| ;+u|f}nfn] klg ;xefuLx¿sf k|ZgnfO{ ;+jf]wg ub}{ cfkm\gf ljrf/ k|:t't ug'{ePsf] lyof] . ;f]xL ljifodf cGo lzIfs ljBfyL{n] klg 5nkmn ug{ ?lr b]vfPsfn] yk cgf}krfl/s 5nkmn cfof]hgf ul/of] . pQm sfo{qmddf dsjfgk'/sf cltl/Qm lrtjg, af/f, k;f{, /f}tx6 nufotsf lhNnfaf6 sl/j !%) ;xefuL ePsf lyP .

%=$ dfgjLo ;'/Iff;DaGwL ;fdu|L ;+sng / ;dLIff

k/Dk/fut cjwf/0ffcGtu{t ;'/IffnfO{ ;fF3'/f] 3]/faf6 x]g]{ ul/G5 . To:tf] ;fF3'/f] a'´fO{nfO{ r'gf}tL lbFb} ;f]sf] :yfgdf ;'/IffnfO{ ;Dk"0f{tfdf x]g]{ dfgjLo ;'/Iff;DaGwL cjwf/0ff cl3 ;fg{'kg]{ cfjZostf rf}tf/Ln] dx;'; u/]sf] xf] . o;} kl/k|]Iodf dfgjLo ;'/Iff;DaGwL g]kfndf pknAw ;fdu|Lsf] ;+sng ug]{ / ;f]sf] ;dLIff ug]{ of]hgf lyof] . ;fdu|L ;+sngsf] sfd ;DkGg ePsf] / ;dLIff ug]{ sfo{ hf/L /x]sf] 5 . cfpFbf] cfly{s jif{df dfgjLo ;'/Iffaf/] cjwf/0ff kq tof/ ug]{ / ;f]xL cjwf/0ff kqsf] cfwf/df d'n'ssf ljleGg :yfgdf cGt/lj|mofTds 5nkmn sfo{j|mdx¿ cfof]hgf ul/g]5 . # c;f/ @)^& -!& h'g @)!)_ af6 nfu" x'g] u/L dfl6{g rf}tf/L / Enabling State Programme (ESP) aLr /fli6«o klxrfg / dfgjLo ;'/Iffaf/] b]zJofkL 5nkmn rnfpg !! dlxg] cg'bfg ;Demf}tf eof] .

6

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o; cfly{s jif{df g]kfnL /fhgLlt, /fHo k'gM;+/rgf tyf ;+ljwfg;ef;DaGwL ljleGg ;fdu|Lx¿ ;d]t ;+sng ul/of] . h;df k':ts, k|sflzt / ck|sflzt k|ltj]bg, hg{n, Dofulhg cflb kb{5g\ . ;+slnt ;fdu|Lx¿sf] ;+u|xsf] ¿kdf /fHo k'gM;+/rgf / ;+ljwfg;ef ;Gbe{ u|Gy -;g\ @))(_ k|sfzg eof] . ^= hghLljsf OsfO ^=! lzIff OsfO cfly{s jif{ @)^^–^& cjlwdf dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf] lzIff OsfOcGtu{t lgDg sfo{x¿ ;DkGg ul/Psf 5g\ .

^=!=! g]kfnsf] pRr lzIffdf ;LdfGts[t ;d'bfosf] kx'Fr a9fpg] sfo{qmd

o; sfo{qmdcGtu{t ljleGg ;LdfGts[t ;d'bfosf k|f/lDes cg';Gwftfx¿nfO{ ! jif{ cjlwsf] cg';Gwfg km]nf]l;k k|bfg ul/Psf] 5 . of] km]nf]l;ksf b'O6f p2]Zo /x]sf 5g\ M • ;LdfGts[t ;d'bfosf k|f/lDes cg';Gwftfsf] ;fdflhs cg';Gwfg;DaGwL Ifdtf clej[l4 ug]{Ù • oL cg';GwftfDffkm{t vf;u/L g]kfnsf] pRr lzIffdf ;LdfGts[t ;d'bfox¿sf] ;dfj]zLs/0f clej[l4 ug]{ af/]df cg';Gwfg ug{ nufpg] . o;cGtu{t klxnf] r/0fdf hgj/L @))( df v'nf k|lt:kwf{sf cfwf/df !% hgf -kl5 # hgfn] ljleGg sf/0fj; 5f]8]sfn] [email protected] hgf_ nfO{ ;f] km]nf]l;k k|bfg ul/Psf] lyof] . oL km]nf]x¿n] @))( sf] clk|n dlxgf;Dd dfl6{g rf}tf/Ln] tof/ u/]sf] Study and Research in Diversity and Pluralism sf];{df ;xefuL ePkZrft ;f]xL jif{sf] h'gb]lv cg';Gwfg sfo{ z'? u/] . cg';Gwfg cjlwe/ l/;r{ km]nf]x¿nfO{ dfl6{g rf}tf/Ln] lgoldt cg'udg Pjd\ k|fl1s ;xof]u÷lgb]{zg k|bfg u/]sf] lyof] . cg';GwfgkZrft\ km]nf]x¿n] Ps–Pscf]6f k|fl1s n]v dfl6{g rf}tf/LnfO{ km]a|'c/L @)!) df a'emfO;s]sf 5g\ . oL n]vx¿sf] ;+sng k':tsfsf/ ¿kdf dfl6{g rf}tf/Laf6 cfufdL cf=j=df k|sflzt x'g]5 . To;}u/L, l8;]Da/ @))( df bf];|f] r/0fcGtu{t v'nf k|lt:kwf{sf cfwf/df [email protected] hgfnfO{ ;f]xL l/;r{ km]nf]l;k k|bfg ul/Psf] 5 . klxnf] r/0fdf h:t} o; r/0fdf klg $ dlxgfsf] sf];{ hgj/L–clk|n @)!) ;s]kZrft km]nf]x¿n] cf–cfˆgf] cg';Gwfg ;'? u/]sf 5g\ . bf];|f] r/0fsf km]nf]x¿n] klg km]nf]l;ksf] cGTodf k|fl1s n]v a'emfpg kg]{ x'G5 h;nfO{ ;Dkflbt k':tssf] ¿kdf k|sfzg ul/g]5 .

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@)^& h]7 @# Why Multilingual Education in Nepal?: Multiple Perspectives Miranda Weinberg, Fulbright Student Scholar

^[email protected] hnjfo' kl/jt{g OsfO o; cfly{s jif{sf] cGTolt/ -d] @)!)_ af6 hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] ;dLIffTds cWoog z'? ePsf] xf] . cWoogsf] p2]Zo hnjfo' kl/jt{gaf/] g]kfndf ePsf gLlt, sfo{qmd, ax; tyf cWoog÷cg';Gwfg -1fg_ sf] ;dLIff u/]/ cg';Gwfgkq tyf gLltkq tof/ ug{' /x]sf] 5 . o;sf nflu o; ljifodf sfd ul//x]sf ;+:yfsf] cWoog, 5fkfsf] cGt/j:t' ljZn]if0f, k"j{k|sflzt s[ltx¿sf] ;dLIff / of] ljifodf ;lqmo JolQm;Fu cGt/jftf{ h:tf ultljlw k5{g\ . o;sfnflu clxn];Dd ;+:yfx¿sf] ;"rL agfpg], 5fkfsf] cGt/j:t' hDdf ug]{ / k"j{ k|sflzt s[ltsf] ;Gbe{ ;"rL agfpg] sfo{sf] k|f/lDes r/0f ;lsPsf] 5 . Tof] ;"rLnfO{ kl/:s[t ug]{ / ;+:yfsf] cWoog tyf JolQm;Fu cGt/jftf{ lng] sfd z'? ePsf] 5 . cGt/j:t' ljZn]if0f tyf k"j{s[ltsf] ;dLIff;lxtsf] cg';Gwfg kqsf] n]vg / gLlt kqsf] n]vg sfo{ afFsL 5 . o; cWoogdf k/fdz{bftfsf ¿kdf z/b l3ld/]n] sfd ul//xg' ePsf] 5 / cGt/j:t' ;+sngdf k|efs/ uf}tdn] ;3fpg' ePsf] 5 . of] sfo{qmdsf] cjlw ^ dlxgf -cS6f]a/ @)!) ;Dd_ sf] 5 . sfo{qmdsf] csf]{ r/0fsf] nflu hnjfo' kl/jt{gaf/] g]kfnLdf Pp6f l/8/ k|sfzg ug]{ of]hgf 5 . ^=# :jf:Yo OsfO o; cfly{s jif{df :jf:Yo;DaGwL sfd ug]{ lhDdf cfzLif l;GxfnfO{ lbOPsf] lyof] . pxfFsf] g]t[Tjdf Prevalence and Trend of Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drug Use among Higher Secondary Students of Metropolitan Kathmandu Valley af/] cg';Gwfg ul/Psf] lyof] . pQm cg';Gwfgaf6 k|fKt glthf @& c;f/

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