Annual Report 2008 2009

cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷^^ sf nflu dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf] k|ltj]bg ljljw ljifout 5nkmn, k':ts k|sfzg, k':tsfno / ljleGg kl/of]hgf÷sf...

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cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷^^ sf nflu dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf] k|ltj]bg ljljw ljifout 5nkmn, k':ts k|sfzg, k':tsfno / ljleGg kl/of]hgf÷sfo{qmdx? cGtu{t dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf sfdx? ;~rfng eO/x]sf 5g\ . cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷^^ [email protected])^% ;fpgb]lv @)^^ c;f/ d;fGt;Dd_ df ePsf sfdx?af/] o; k|ltj]bgdf lj:t[t ?kdf tn pNn]v ul/g] 5 . != rf}tf/L 5nkmn z[ª\vnf dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf] 5nkmn z[ª\vnfcGtu{t k|To]s cfOtaf/ /fhgLlt jf cg';Gwfgsf ljifo, k|To]s dª\unaf/ ljleGg ;d;fdlos ljifodf / k|To]s ljxLaf/ ldl8of;DaGwL 5nkmn x'G5 . cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷^^ df dfl6{g rf}tf/Ldf hDdf !%$ cf]6f 5nkmn eP . cfOtaf/, d+unaf/ / lalxaf/sf] lgoldt 5nkmn z[ª\vnf afx]s !$ j6f cltl/Qm 5nkmn eP -5nkmnsf] ljifo / jQmfaf/] cg';"lr df x]g'{xf];\_ . o; jif{ labf / aGbsf sf/0f !$ cf]6f 5nkmn x'g ;s]gg\ . o;afx]s x/]s z'qmaf/ o'jf cleofgn] ub}{ cfPsf] o'jf 5nkmn @)^% sflQskl5 aGb eof] eg] x/]s zlgaf/ ax'ljwfut k|fl1s b[li6sf]0f ;d"x (MAPS)n] ub}{ cfPsf] zf:qfy{ 5nkmn klg @)^% bz}+kl5 lg/Gt/ x'g ;s]g . x/]s ;f]daf/ kf; g]kfnn] ub}{ cfPsf] ;dfh lj1fgsf 5nkmn z[ª\vnf o; cfly{s jif{df lgoldt eP . n;gf snf ;d'xn] ;+rfng u/]sf] snf 5nkmn k|To]s cGt/fli6«o dlxgfsf] clGtd d+unaf/ rln/x]sf] 5 . o; k|ltj]bgdf rf}tf/L 5nkmn z[ª\vnf cGtu{t ePsf 5nkmnx?sf] af/]df dfq} rrf{ ul/g]5 .

cfOtaf/]

o; cfly{s jif{df hDdf $^ cf]6f 5nkmn eP . aGb / labfsf sf/0f % cf]6f 5nkmn x'g ;s]g 5nkmnsf] ljifo / jQmfsf] ljj/0f cg';"lr -!_ df x]g'{xf];\_ .

dª\unaf/]M

o; cfly{s jif{df hDdf $^ cf]6f 5nkmn eP . labf / aGbsf sf/0f & cf]6f 5nkmn x'g ;s]g 5nkmnsf] ljifo / jQmfsf] ljj/0f cg';"lr [email protected]_ df x]g'{xf];\_ .

lalxaf/] -ldl8of 5nkmn / lkmNd k|bz{g_ M

lalxaf/ x'g] ldl8of 5nkmn z[ª\vnfcGtu{t !%–!% lbgdf 5nkmn / lkmNd k|bz{g x'g] u/]sf] 5 . o; cfly{s jif{df ljlxaf/] 5nkmn z[ª\vnfcGtu{t hDdf $* cf]6f 5nkmn eP . h;dWo] @& cf]6f 5nkmn / @! cf]6f lkmNd k|bz{g tyf 5nkmn eP . aGb tyf labfsf sf/0f % cf]6f sfo{qmd x'g ;s]g -5nkmnsf] ljifo / jQmfsf] ljj/0f cg';"lr -#_ df x]g'{xf];\_ . clt/LQm 5nkmn o; jif{ !$ cf]6f clt/LQm 5nkmn eP . 5nkmnsf] ljifo / jQmfsf] ljj/0f cg';"lr -$_ df x]g'{xf];\_ . rf}tf/L 5nkmn ;~rfngsf] o; jif{ @))(sf] hgj/L ;Dd s[i0f clwsf/Ln] lhDdf lnOPsf]df km]a'|j/Lb]lv h'g ;Dd s}nfz /fO{n] lhDdf lng'eof] . h'nfO{ b]lv eg] ;a} 5nkmn ;+uLtf kf08]n] x]g'{x'g]5 . ;+uLtf kf08]n] k|To]s cGt/fli6«o dlxgfsf] klxnf] cfOtaf/ x'g] ;flxTo 5nkmn ut jif{b]lv g} ;+rfng ub}{ cfpg' ePsf] 5 . s]xL ;do cl3b]lv g} rf}tf/L 5nkmndf dlxnf jQmf / ;xeflutf sd eO/x]sf] s'/fk|lt klg rf}tf/Lsf] Wofg cfslif{t ePsf] lyof] . pgLx¿sf] ;ª\Vof÷pkl:ylt a9fpg / k|f]T;fxg ug{sf] nflu s]xL kxn klg ePsf] xf] . dlxnfsf ljifo / jQmfnfO{ k|f]T;fxg ug{ utjif{ b]lv z'? u/LPsf] dfr{ dlxgfe/Lsf] 5nkmndf dlxnf jQmf / ;xeflutf a9fpg u/LPsf] k|of; o; jif{ klg lg/Gt/ /xof] . kf; g]kfnn] ;+rfng u/]sf] kf; g]kfn l;/Lh eg] rln/x]sf] 5 .

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@_ k':ts k|sfzg o; cfly{s jif{df dfl6{g rf}tf/L k':ts z[ª\vnfcGtu{t hDdf ( j6f k':ts k|sfzLt eP . k|sflzt ePsf k':tsx?sf] gfdM !_ Changing Livelihoods: Essays on Nepali's Development since 1990 (2008) (45, Jagannath Adhikari) @_ Food Crisis in Karnali : A Historical and Politico -economic Perspective (2008) (46, Jagannath Adhikari) #_ dfcf]jfbL ;ª\3if{ MzflGtk"0f{ ?kfGt/0f - ;g\ @))* $& , ef:s/ uf}td / lr/g dfgGw/, ;+=_ $_ :jtGq /]l8of]sf] Ps bzs M ljsf; ax; / ;fdflhs ;/f]sf/ -;g\ @))* $*, b]j/fh x'dfufO{, k|To"if jGt / sf]dn e§ , ;+=_ %_ /fHo k'g;{/rgf M /fhgLlts, cfly{s / ;f+:s[lts b[li6sf]0f -;g\ @))*, $(, s[i0f vgfn, emns ;'j]bL / d'Qm l;+x tfdfª _ ^_ g]kfnL 6]lnlehg M cEof;, cg'e"lt / ljZn]if0f - ;g\ @))*, %), bLkf uf}td / z]v/ k/fh'nL, ;+=_ &_ /]l8of] g]6js{ M cEof;, cGtj{:t' / :yfgLo k|efj -;g\ @))(, %!, b]j/fh x'dfufO{, sf]dn e§ / xif{dfg dxh{g, ;+=_ *_ h}ljs ljljwtf / hghLjLsf -;g\ @))(, %@, xl/ k|;fb 9'Îfgf, huGgfy clwsf/L / z/b l3ld/], ;+ _ (_ ldl8of cWoog $ -%#, z]v/ k/fh'nL, k|To"if jGt / b]j/fh x'dfufO{, ;+=_ o;} u/L Studies in Nepali History and Society sf Vol [email protected]@_ / !# -!_ sf b'O{ c+s dfl6{g rf}tf/L ;d]tsf] ;+nUgtfdf tof/ u/L d08nf a's KjfOG6af6 k|sfzLt eP . zflGtsf] nflu ;femf cleofg, g]kfn blIf0f Pl;of s]Gb|, P8\ef]s];L kmf]/d, ;fd'bflos ljsf; ;Ë7g, hfu/0f ldl8of ;]G6/ / dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf] ;+o'Qm k|sfzg ;dfh lj1fg;DaGwL cw{jflif{s hg{n ?kfGt/0fM ;dfh cWoog o; cfly{s jif{df k|sflzt x'g ;s]g . k|sfzs ;d'xsf] ;'":;tfsf] sf/0f rf}tf/L k|sfzs ;d'xaf6 cnlUuPsf] 5 . dfl6{g rf}tf/Ldf ;~rfng eO/x]sf ljleGg kl/of]hgf cGtu{t oL k':tsx¿ k|sflzt ul/Psf] xf]] . o;af/]df kl5Nnf v08df yk rrf{ ul/g]5 . #_ dfl6{g rf}tf/L k':tsfno dfl6{g rf}tf/L k':tsfnodf @)^^ c;f/;Dddf hDdf [email protected]&*) j6f k':tsx? 5g\ . k':tsafx]s y]l;;, ck|sflzt k|ltj]bgx? klg 5g\ . ldl8of;DaGwL ;fdu|LnfO{ Jojl:yt agfP/ /fVgsf nflu 8flg8faf6 cfly{s ;xof]u k|fKt ePsf]n] t'ngfTds ?kdf ldl8of;DaGwL ;fdu|L w]/} 5g\ . xfd|f] ;+sngdf ldl8ofsf k':tsx? @$(# -g]kfnL–ljb]zL u/L_ 5g\ . g]kfnL ldl8ofaf/] ck|sflzt k|ltj]bgx? !^* sfo{kqx¿ @#% / zf]wkqx? [email protected]( 5g\ . oL afx]s cGo k':tsx?df /fhgLltzf:q, n}lËstf, jftfj/0f, Oltxf;, wd{, :jf:Yo, cy{zf:q, ;flxTo cflb ljifosf k':tsx? /x]sf 5g\ . k':tsfnodf /x]sf k':tsx?dWo] @)^% ;fpg ! b]lv @)^^ c;f/ d;fGt;Dddf hDdf !&%% j6f k':tsx? ylkPsf 5g\ . oLdWo] !^@% j6f dfq lslgPsf / afFsL !%) j6f k':tsx? pkxf/:j?k rf}tf/L 8s'd]G6];g ;]G6/nfO{ k|fKt ePsf x'g\ . of] ;fn klg km'6s/ cfl6{snx¿sf] 8]6fa]; agfpg ;lsPg . nfdf] ;dob]lv /f]lsPsf] Go'h lSnlkª\;sf] sfo{ ug{sf] nflu @)^% ;fn df3 b]lv @)^^ a}zfv;Dd ch'{g kGyL / /]0f'sf >]i7nfO{ lgo'Qm ul/of] . sfdsf] rfk x]/L pgLx?nfO{ @)^^ ;fpg;Ddsf] nflu yk sfd ug{ /flvPsf] 5 . @)^^ ;fn j}zfv b]lv k|]; sfplG;n g]kfnaf6 lgoldt ?kdf Go"h lSnlkª\; Nofpg] lg0f{o eP cg';f/ lSnlkª\; Nofpg] sfd ePsf] 5 .

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rf}tf/L k':tsfnodf k':ts / kqklqsfsf nflu 7fpF cefj v8\ls/x]sf] a]nfdf gofF ejg agfpg] lg0f{o ul/of] . k':tssf] a9\bf] rfk oyfjt 5 . pkof]ustf{sf] rfk a9\g'sf ;fy} zfGtk"j{s a;]/ k9\gnfO{ xfnsf] cWoog sIf pko'Qm gePsf] 7x/ u/L gofF cWoog sIf -$) lkm6 nDafO, !& lkm6 rf}8fO_ agfOPsf] 5 . rf}tf/L sfof{no kl/;/d} /x]sf] 6x/f klg 3/wgLnfO{ eg]/ vfnL u/fOPsf] 5 hxfF ca k'/fgf klqsf /fVg ;lsg]5 . k"j{ cWoog sIf vfnL x'g] / klqsf /fv]sf] v08 klg vfnL x'g] ePsfn] :yfg cefjsf] ;d:of s]xL ;donfO{ 6/]sf] 5 .To;}ul/ @)^% ;fn kmfu'g b]lv nfOj|]/Ldf Ps dlxgf OG6{gl;k ug{sf] nflu /fhlj/fhaf6 /rgf ofbj cfpg' ePsf] lyof] / pxfFnfO{ Ps dlxgf;Dd nfOj|]/L Joj:yfkg ;DaGwL tflnd lbOof] . $_ jftfj/0fLo Gofo sfo{qmd kmf]8{ kmfp08]zgåf/f ;xof]u k|fKt jftfj/0fLo Gofo sfo{qmdsf ;Dk"0f{ ultljlwx? ut cfly{s jif{ @)^#÷^$_d} k'/f e};s]sf x'g\ . o; cfly{s jif{sf] nflu afFls /x]sf] h}ljs ljljwtfaf/]sf] k':ts o;} jif{ k|sfzLt eof] . %_ ldl8of cg';Gwfg sfo{qmd ldl8of ;|f]t ;fdu|L s]Gb| -rf}tf/L k':tsfno_ df k"j{jt ultljlwn] 8flg8f x'uf]sf] cfly{s ;xof]udf o; jif{ klg lg/Gt/tf kfof] . rf}tf/L ;|f]t ;fdu|L s]Gb|df sfo{kq / k|sflzt cg';Gwfgd"ns tyf ljZn]if0ffTds n]v, zf]w u|Gy / ck|sflzt k|ltj]bg, k':tsx? ;Íng ug]{ sfd ul/of] . ;+slnt ;fdu|Lsf] Joj:yfkg klg ul/of] . k':tsfnoaf/] yk rrf{ dfl6{g rf}tf/L k':tsfno pkzLif{sdf cufl8 g} ul/Psf] 5 . ldl8of cg';Gwfg sfo{qmdcGtu{t b]j/fh x'dfufO{+, k|To"if jGt / sf]dn e§åf/f ;Dkflbt :jtGq /]l8of]sf] Ps bzs M ljsf;, ax; / ;fdflhs ;/f]sf/ o; cfly{s jif{df k|sflzt eof] . bLkf uf}td / z]v/ k/fh'nLåf/f ;Dkflbt k':ts g]kfnL 6]lnlehgM cEof;, cg'e"lt / ljZn]if0f klg o;} jif{ k|sflzt eof] . b]j/fh x'dfufO{, sf]dn e§ / xif{dfg dxh{gåf/f lnlvt csf]{ k':ts /]l8of] g]6js{M cEof;, cGtj{:t' / :yfgLo k|efj klg k|sflzt eof] . ljleGg kqklqsfdf oL k':tsx?sf] ;dLIff ePsf 5g\ . a]Unfa]Un} ldltdf oL k':tssf] ljdf]rg sfo{qmd klg ul/Psf] lyof] . jflif{s ldl8of hg{n ldl8of cWoogsf] rf}yf] c+s -;g\ @))(_ o; cfly{s jif{ k|sflzt eof] . hDdf #@$ k]hsf] of] hg{ndf !* hgf n]vssf ljleGg ;fdu|L 5flkPsf] 5 . hg{nsf] o; cÍsf] ;+of]hg z]v/ k/fh'nL, k|To"if jGt / b]j/fh x'dfufO{n] ug'{ePsf] xf] . ldl8of km]nf]l;k @))* kfPsf * cg';Gwftfn] cfˆgf] sfd ;s]/ k|ltj]bg tyf To;sf] cfwf/df n]lvPsf] g]kfnL n]v o; cfly{s jif{df a'emfP . tL dWo] b'O{ hgf -xl/s[i0f 8+uf]n / b'aLgGb 9sfn_ sf] n]v ldl8of cWoog hg{nsf] rf}yf] c+sdf 5flkPsf] 5 . afFsL s]xLsf] n]v c+s % df 5fKg] of]hgf 5 . ldl8of km]nf]l;k @))( sf nflu cfj]bg cfXjfg ul/;lsPsf] 5 . cf=j= @)^^÷^& df ^ hgf :jtGq cg';GwftfnfO{ ? krf; xhf/sf b/n] km]nf]l;k k|bfg ug]{ of]hgf 5 . dfl6{g rf}tf/Ldf lgoldt lalxaf/] 5nkmn zLif{scGtu{t rrf{ e};Sof] . To; cltl/Qm o;} kl/of]hgfcGtu{t yk sfo{qmd ul/Psf lyP . @)^^ a}zfv # df dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf ;fyLn] g]kfnL ldl8ofaf/] u/]sf cg';Gwfg k|:t'ltsf] sfo{qmd ul/of] . To;}u/L @)^^ a}zfv @% df xf]6n d:of{ª\bLdf g]kfnL ldl8ofdf lqmofzLn cEof;sdL{sf] k|:t''ltsf] sfo{qmd ul/of] . PnfPG; km/ ;f];n 8fonusf] cfly{s ;xof]udf b'O{ sfo{qmd ;DkGg eP . /]l8of] g]6js{af/]sf] Ps 5nkmn dfl6{g rf}tf/Ldf @)^% ebf} !( df ul/of] eg] g]kfnL 6]lnlehgaf/]sf] 5nkmn @)^% ;fpg @% df xf]6n dfpG6]gdf ul/of] . 8flg8fsf] cfly{s ;xof]udf ;~rflnt of] kl/of]hgfcGtu{t dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf] % jif]{ /0fgLlt kq agfpg] sfo{qmd klg lyof] . o; sfd klg ;DkGg eof] . ;]/f tfdfªn] o;sf] d:of}bf tof/ kfg'{ePsf] lyof] h;nfO{ ljleGg r/0fdf rf}tf/Lsf] sfo{ ;ldlt, ;fwf/0f;ef / sd{rf/Laf6 k|fKt ;'emfjsf cfwf/df kl/dfh{g ul/Psf] lyof] . o;} kl/of]hgfcGtu{t ;+ljwfg;efsf] k|lqmofaf/] gLltkq -kln;L a|Lkm_ klg 3

agfOof] . o; sfd ;]/f tfdfªn] g} ug'{ ePsf] lyof] pxfFnfO{ s}nfz /fO{ / k|efs/ uf}tdn] ;3fpg' ePsf] lyof] . ldl8of cg';Gwfgsf ;b:o sf]dn e§n] o; jif{sf] cGtb]lv rf}tf/L 5f]8\g' eof] . ^_ /fhgLlt / dfgjLo ;'/Iff :jf:Yo / ;'zfzg sfo{s|d g]j]{lhog rr{ P8sf] ;xof]udf dfl6{g rf}tf/Ln] :jf:Yo / ;'zfzg sfo{s|d o; cfly{s jif{ [email protected])^%÷^^_ af6 z'? ePsf]] 5 . xfn}sf] cfly{s jif{ [email protected])^%÷^^_df o; sfo{qmd cGtu{t b'O{cf]6f cg';GwfgfTds /rgf k|sfzg ul/g] of]hgf 5 . k|sflzt ul/g'kg]{ /rgfx? b'Oj6} cª\u]|hLdf 5g\ . klxnf] cg';GwfgfTds /rgfsf] n]vg sfo{ z'? ePsf] 5 . klxnf] cg';GwfgfTds /rgf cf}ifWfLsf] ljt/0fsf] ;]/f]ˆm]/f]df s]lG›t x'g] 5 . o; sfo{s|d cGtu{t xfNf;Dd # cf]6f 5nkmn sfo{qmd ePsf]] 5 / o;NffO{ qmdz a9fpb} Nflug] of]Hfgf 5 . o;} P8 cg';f/ g]kfnL ;]gf ;DaGwL k':ts lgsfNg] sfo{qmd l9nf ePklg @)^^ ebf}sf] cGt;Dddf k':tssf] d:of}bf cfpg] ;+efjgf ePsf] s'/f pQm k':tssf ;Dkfbs ;'lw/ zdf{n] hfgsf/L lbPsf lyP . To; sfo{qmdnfO{ ;3fpgsf] nflu ;fpg ! laxLaf/ @)^% df g]kfnL ;]gfsf] ?kfGt/0f M ;+efjgf / r'gf}tL ljifodf 5nkmn sfo{qmd eof] . To;kl5 c? s'g} sfo{qmd x'g ;s]g . &_ g]kfndf ;fdflhs ;dfj]zLs/0fsf d'2fx? ;fdflhs ;dfj]zLs/0fsf Ph]08f o; sfo{qmdcGtu{t efjL ;+ljwfgdf ;d]l6g'kg]{ ljleGg hflt tyf ;d'bfosf ;dfj]zLs/0fsf d'2fdfly sf7df8f}Fdf kfFr cf]6f 5nkmn cfof]hgf ul/of] . h;df ;dfj]zLs/0f ,blnt, hghflt, dlxnf / dw]z ;DaGwL ljifo lyP . ESP åf/f pknAw cfly{s ;xof]udf ;g\ @))&–@))* df ;fdflhs ;dfj]zLs/0fsf d'2fdfly b]zsf ljleGg efudf ul/Psf gf} cf]6f 5nkmnsf] lg/Gt/tfs} ¿kdf oL kfFr cf]6f 5nkmn cui6 @))*–l8;]Da/ @))* leq ;DkGg ul/Psf] lyof] . dfl6{[g rf}tf/Ldf ePsf pQm 5nkmn sfo{qmdsf] ldlt ljifo / jQmfaf/] cg';'lrdf lbOPsf] 5 . *_ :jf:Yo, ;dfh / cy{/fhgLltsf] sfo{qmd :jf:Yo ;dfh / cy{ /fhgLlt;DaGwL sfo{qmd O8ga/f ljZj ljBfno -a]nfot_, dfl6{g rf}tf/L -g]kfn_ / :jf:Yo tyf ;fdflhs Gofo s]Gb| -ef/t_ n] ;+o'Qm ?kdf ;~rfng ub}{ cfO/x]sf] xf] . of] sfd @))( hgj/Lb]lv ;lsof] . pQm cjwLdf u/]sf sfdx?nfO{ k|ltj]bg tof/ u/]/ k|sfzLt ug]{ of]hgf ePklg of] sfd x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . @))*sf] cui6df dw';'bg ;'j]bLn] of] kl/of]hgf 5f]8\g' eof] . pxfFn] 5f]8]kl5 To; kl/of]hgfsf] ;a} sfd gljg /fjnn] x]g'{ eof] . To; cjlwdf o; kl/of]hgf ;DaGwL @ cf]6f sfo{qmd eP . @))( clk|n % / ^ df nlntk'/sf] xf]6n ;ld6df o; sfo{qmdaf/] clGtd js{;k ePsf] lyof] . of] kl/of]hgfsf] clwsf+z ;do cGtjf{tf{ lng] / To;nfO{ cg'jfb ug]{ sfddf laTof] . utjif{ nueu @)) eGbf a9L JolQm;Fu To:tf] cGtjf{tf{ lnOPsf] lyof] . lnOPsf cGtjf{tf{x?nfO{ sDKo"6/ ;ˆ6j]o/sf] u'0ffTds tYofÍ ljZn]if0f k|f]u|fddfkm{t ljZn]if0f ul/of] . o;/L tof/ ePsf n]vx?nfO{ cgs'n ldnfP/ k|sflzt u/Lg]5 . (_ pRr lzIffsf sfo{qmd lzIff ;DaGwL sfo{qmd tyf pknAwLx? != …g]kfnsf] pRr lzIffdf ;LdfGts[t ;d"xsf] kx'Fr s;/L a9fpg]Ú sfo{qmd • kmf]8{ kmfpG8];gsf] ;xof]udf ;g\ @))* km]a|'c/Lb]lv @)!) hgj/L;Dd @ jif{sf] calwsf nflu g]kfnsf] pRr lzIffdf ;LdfGts[t ;d"x -dlxnf, blnt, hghflt, dw];L_ sf] kx'Fr s;/L a9fpg] gfds sfo{qmd ;+rfng eO/x]sf] 5 . of] sfo{qmd k|df]b e§sf] ;+of]hsTjdf rln/x]sf] 5 . o; sfo{qmdsf] klxnf] r/0f cGtu{t lj=;+= @)^% sf] sflt{s ;Dddf pRr lzIffdf hftLo ;xeflutf 4

;DaGwL cg';Gwfg k"/f ePsf] 5 . of] cg';Gwfgsf] d'Vo p2]Zo dlxnf, blnt, hghflt, dw];L tyf d';ndfg ;d'bfosf] pRr lzIffdf k|ltlglwTj s:tf] 5 egL cWoog ug'{ /x]sf] lyof] . cWoog cg';Gwfgsf] sfddf nLnf clwsf/L, /d]z /fO{, dg s'= 7f8f ;+nUg x'g'x'GYof] . cWoog cg';Gwfgsf glthfx? ljleGg r/0fdf ;fj{hlgs eO;s]sf 5g\ . o; cg';Gwfgsf cfwf/df n]lvPsf] Pp6f n]v :68Lh\ Og\ g]kfnL lx:6«L P08 ;f];fO6L gfds hg{nsf] cfufdL c+sdf k|sflzt xF'b}5 eg] o;sf] ;f/f+z g]kfn ;fKtflxs klqsfsf] aif{ ( c+s @& df k|sflzt ePsf] lyof] . • sfo{qmdsf] bf];|f] r/0f cGtu{t ;g\ @))( sf] hgj/L dlxgfb]lv hDdf !$ JolQmnfO{ -xfn [email protected] hgf dfq_ ! aif{ cjlwsf] cg';Gwfg km]nf]zLk k|bfg ul/Psf] 5 . o; cGtu{t hgj/Lb]lv clk|n;Dd :68Lh\ P08 l/;r{ Og\ 8fOel;{6L P08 KNo"/flnHd\ gfds ljifosf] k9fO{ ePsf] 5 eg] d] dlxgfb]lv cg';Gwfg km]nf]x?n] pRr lzIffdf ;LdfGts[t ;d"xsf] kx'Fr;Fu ;DalGwt\ ljleGg laifox?df dfl6{g rf}tf/Ln] tf]s]sf d]G6/x?sf] lgb]{zgdf cg';Gwfg ul//x]sf 5g\ . of] sfo{ ;g\ @))( sf] l8;]Da/df ;DkGg x'g]5 . @= lzIff ;DaGwL 5nkmn • ;g\ @))* sf] ;]K6]Da/ dlxgfb]lv x/]s dlxgfdf ! k6s lzIff ;DaGwL 5nkmn sfo{qmd cfof]hgf ul/b} cfPsf] 5 -x]g'{xf]; cg';"rL_ . • lzIff ;+hfn (Education Network) ;Fu ;xsfo{ u/]/ x/]s dlxgfdf Pp6f lzIff ;DaGwL 5nkmn xF'b} cfPsf] 5 . • ;fdflhs ;+jfbsf nflu ;xsfo{ (Alliance for Social Dialogue) ;Fu ;xsfo{ u/]/ …;+3Lotf tyf /fHo k'gM;{+/rgfsf] ;Gbe{df lzIffsf] k'gM;{+/rgfÚ laifodf xfn;Dd b'Oj{ 6f sfo{zfnf uf]i7Lx? ;dfkg e};s]sf 5g\ . !)_ cGo sfo{ • dfl6{g rf}tf/L tyf The New School University, New York aLr ;xsfo{ a9fpg] p2]Zon] ;g\ @))( sf] h'g tyf h'nfO{ dlxgfdf ;f] ljZjljBfnosf :gftsf]Q/ ljBfyL{x?sf nflu $ j6f cGtlqm{of sfo{qmdx?sf] cfof]hgf ul/Psf] lyof] . • rf}tf/Ln] o;} jif{ cfˆgf] /0fgLlt kq klg agfPsf] 5 . • dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf] k':ts ljleGg ljqm]tfsxfF k'¥ofpg] sfd ;'?cftb]lv g} dfl6{g rf}tf/Laf6} x'Fb} cfPsf] lyof] . t/ o; sfd k|efjsf/L 9+un] x'g ;s]sf] lyPg . vf; u/L lalqm eO;s]sf] k':tssf] /sd p7fpg] sfddf rf}tf/L sdhf]/ b]lvPsf] lyof] . k':tssf] ;+Vofdf cfPsf] j[l4;Fu;Fu} of] ;d:of emg\ a9\b} lyof] . lalqmsf nflu ljt/s vf]Hg] s'/f a]nfa]nfdf p7\g] u/] klg To;f] x'g ;s]sf] lyPg . cGttM @)^% sflQs !^ b]lv k':ts lalqmsf] sfd lxdfn lstfadfkm{t x'Fb} cfPsf] 5 . • dfl6{g rf}tf/L / 3/wgL;Fusf] k'/fgf] ;Demf}tf @)^% r}tb]lv ;lsPsfn] cfufdL kfFr jif{ -la+ ;+ @)&) ;Dd_ sf nflu gofF ;Demf}tf ul/of] . • rf}tf/Lsf sd{rf/Lsf] sfo{sf}zn d"Nof+sg ug]{ x]t'n] @)^^ a}zfvdf rf/dlxgfsf] cjlw tf]sL d"Nofs+g k|lqmof cl3 a9fOPsf] lyof] . d"Nof+sgdfkm{t sdhf]/L / ;an kIf cf}FNofpFb} cfufdL lbgdf sdhf]/L x6fpg] k|lqmof yfngL ul/of] . • 8flg8f x'uf]n] dfl6{g rf}tf/LnfO{ bL3{sfnLg ;xof]u ug]{ OR5f b]vfPsf] lyof] / dfl6{g rf}tf/Ln] kfFr jif]{ /0fgLlt kq tof/ u¥of] . To;kl5 ljleGg bftfx?;Fu ;fd"lxs a}7s ul/Psf] lyof] . o;kl5 8flg8f x'uf]n] dfl6{g rf}tf/LnfO{ rf/jif{sf nflu ? $ s/f]8 ^) nfv lbg] ePsf] 5 . • o'Pgl8kLsf] cfly{s ;xof]udf Ps lbg] jftfj/l0fo kl/jt{gaf/] cfwflbg] sfo{qmd klg eof] . 5

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