Annual report 2007 2008

cfly{s jif{ @)^$÷^% sf nflu dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf] k|ltj]bg ljljw ljifout 5nkmn, k':ts k|sfzg, k':tsfno / ljleGg kl/of]hgf÷sf...

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cfly{s jif{ @)^$÷^% sf nflu dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf] k|ltj]bg ljljw ljifout 5nkmn, k':ts k|sfzg, k':tsfno / ljleGg kl/of]hgf÷sfo{qmdx? cGtu{t dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf sfdx? ;~rfng eO/x]sf 5g\ . cfly{s jif{ @)^$÷^% [email protected])^$ ;fpgb]lv @)^% c;f/ d;fGt;Dd_ df ePsf sfdx?af/] o; k|ltj]bgdf lj:t[t ?kdf tn pNn]v ul/g] 5 . != rf}tf/L 5nkmn z[ª\vnf dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf] 5nkmn z[ª\vnfcGtu{t k|To]s cfOtaf/ /fhgLlt jf cg';Gwfgsf ljifo, k|To]s dª\unaf/ ljleGg ;d;fdlos ljifodf / k|To]s ljxLaf/ ldl8of;DaGwL 5nkmn x'G5 . cfly{s jif{ @)^$÷^% df dfl6{g rf}tf/Ldf hDdf !%) cf]6f 5nkmn eP . cfOtaf/, d+unaf/ / lalxaf/sf] lgoldt 5nkmn z[ª\vnfdWo] & j6f cltl/Qm 5nkmn eP -5nkmnsf] ljifo / jQmfaf/] cg';"lr -3_ df x]g'{xf];\_ . o;afx]s x/]s z'qmaf/ o'jf cleofgn] ub}{ cfPsf] o'jf 5nkmn x/]s zlgaf/ ax'ljwfut k|fl1s b[li6sf]0f ;d"x (MAPS)n] ub}{ cfPsf] zf:qfy{ 5nkmn / x/]s ;f]daf/ kf; g]kfnn] ub}{ cfPsf] ;dfh lj1fgsf 5nkmn z[ª\vnf o; cfly{s jif{df lgoldt eP . o; k|ltj]bgdf rf}tf/L 5nkmn z[ª\vnf cGtu{t ePsf 5nkmnx?sf] af/]df dfq} rrf{ ul/g]5 .

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cl3Nnf] cfly{s jif{ [email protected])^#÷^$_df /fhgLlts tyf cg';Gwfgsf ljifodf hDdf [email protected] cf]6f 5nkmn ePsf lyP . aGb / cGo ljbfsf] sf/0f & cf]6f 5nkmn x'g ;s]g . o; cfly{s jif{df eg] hDdf $$ cf]6f 5nkmn eP . aGb / labfsf sf/0f % cf]6f 5nkmn x'g ;s]g -5nkmnsf] ljifo / jQmfsf] ljj/0f cg';"lr -s_ df x]g'{xf];\_ .

dª\unaf/]M

cl3Nnf] cfly{s jif{ [email protected])^#÷^$_df hDdf $% cf]6f 5nkmn ePsf lyP . aGbsf] sf/0fn] # cf]6f 5nkmn x'g ;s]g . o; cfly{s jif{df hDdf $& cf]6f 5nkmn eP . labf / aGbsf sf/0f % cf]6f 5nkmn x'g ;s]g -5nkmnsf] ljifo / jQmfsf] ljj/0f cg';"lr -v_ df x]g'{xf];\_ .

lalxaf/] -ldl8of 5nkmn / lkmNd k|bz{g_ M

lalxaf/ x'g] ldl8of 5nkmn z[ª\vnfcGtu{t !%–!% lbgdf 5nkmn / lkmNd k|bz{g x'g] u/]sf] 5 . cl3Nnf] cfly{s jif{ @)^#÷^$_df ldl8of 5nkmn / lkmNd k|bz{g b'j} u/L hDdf $# cf]6f sfo{qmd ePsf] lyof] . h;dWo] @# cf]6f 5nkmn / @) cf]6f lkmNd k|bz{g tyf 5nkmn ePsf] lyof] . o; cfly{s jif{df ljlxaf/] 5nkmn z[ª\vnfcGtu{t hDdf $% cf]6f 5nkmn eP . h;dWo] @# cf]6f 5nkmn / @@ cf]6f lkmNd k|bz{g tyf 5nkmn eP . aGb tyf labfsf sf/0f $ cf]6f sfo{qmd x'g ;s]g -5nkmnsf] ljifo / jQmfsf] ljj/0f cg';"lr -u_ df x]g'{xf];\_ . dflysf 5nkmnafx]s g]kfnL ;flxTosf] cj:yfaf/]df b'O{ lbg] ;flxlTs uf]i7L ul/of] . h;df ;flxTosf/x?nfO{ pgLx?sf] If]qaf/] sfo{kq n]Vg nufO{ cGt/lqmof ul/of] . To:t}u/L g]kfndf /x]sf k':tsfnosf cj:yf / pgLx?n] u/L/x]sf] sfdsf] af/]df klg 5nkmn ul/of] . dfl6{g rf}tf/Ln] 5nkmndf cfpg] ;xeflux?;Fu g} k};f p7fP/ ldl8n Snf; P08 sdf]l86L eGg] 5nkmndf vfhf v'jfPsf] lyof] . of] gofF vfn] t/Lsfsf] 5nkmndf em08} !)) hgf ;xeflux? lyP . oL sfdx? dfl6{g rf}tf/Ln] dfq ;+rfng u/]sf] lyof] . rf}tf/Lsf] ;+of]hgdf cGo s]xL ;+3;+:yfx?;Fusf] ;xsfo{df klg 5nkmn sfo{qmd ul/of] . h'g pkof]uL b]lvof] . h;df ;fdflhs ;dfj]zLs/0f cg';Gwfg sf]if -;km{_, ;fdflhs ;+jfbsf nflu ;xsfo{ -PP;8L_, hfu/0f ldl8of ;]G6/, >dhLjL kqsf/ dlxnf (WWJ), /fli6«o kmf]6f] kqsf/ ;dfh cflb lyP . rf}tf/L 5nkmn ;~rfngsf] nflu ckgfO/x]sf] t/Lsf 7Ls 5 jf 5}g eGg] af/]df ljutdf l/Eo' u/LPsf] lyof] . s]xL sf/0fx? kQf nufOPsf] klg lyof] . / s]xL ;'wf/ ug{] k|oTg klg eO/x]sf] 5 . 5nkmndf lgdGq0ff ug]{ t/Lsf xfn;Dd Od]n / ˆofS;nfO{ dfq cfwf/ dflgPsf] lyof] . ljut ^ dlxgf otfb]lv 5nkmnsf] ljifo / ;/f]sf/jfnf tyf To;;Fu ;DaGwLt ;+3;+:yf jf JolQmx?nfO{ kmf]g, Od]n, ˆofS;dfkm{t ;'rgf lbg yflnof] . / ljleGg 7fFpx? -afuahf/, afg]Zj/, cf/cf/ sn]h, k|bz{gLdfu{ / tLgs'g] / To;afx]s sn]hx?df / ;fj{hlgs 7fFpx?_df sfo{qmdaf/] ;'rgf 6fF:g yflnPsf] 5 . To;sf] ;fy} gofF–gofF ljwf;Fu ;DalGwt jQmf tyf ;xeflux? h'6fpg] kxn klg ug{ yflnPsf] 5 . 5nkmn ;+of]hgsf] nflu s[i0f clwsf/LnfO{ lhDdf lbOPsf] 5 . h;n] ubf{ 5nkmnsf] ljifo tyf jQmf 6'ª\uf] nufpFg] sfddf ;lhnf] ePsf] 5 . 5nkmndf ljljwtf Nofpg] x]t'n] rf}tf/Lsf 1

;fw/0f ;b:ox?nfO{ cfˆgf] cg's'n cg';f/ 5nkmn u/fpg cfu|x ul/b} cfOPsf] 5 . t/ 5nkmnnfO{ pxfFx?af6 vf;} ;xof]u k'u]sf] b]lvPg . s]xL ;do cl3b]lv g} rf}tf/L 5nkmndf dlxnf jQmf / ;xeflutf sd eO/x]sf] s'/fk|lt klg rf}tf/Lsf] Wofg cfslif{t x'Fb} cfO/x]sf] lyof] . pgLx¿sf] ;ª\Vof÷pkl:ylt a9fpg / k|f]T;fxg ug{sf] nflu s]xL kxn klg ePsf] xf] . ;g\ @))* sf] dfr{ dlxgfe/Lsf] 5nkmndf dlxnf jQmf / ;xeflutfk|lt ljz]if hf]8 lbOPsf] lyof] . h;df 5nkmnsf jQmfsf ?kdf dlxnf g} /x]sf lyP . dlxnf jQmf tyf ;xeflutf a9fpFg] x]t'n] >dlhjL kqsf/ dlxnf -WWJ_, snf ;d'x, n;gf -cl:dgfsf] ;d'x_ h:tf dlxnfsf ;+:yfx?;Fu ;xsfo{ klg ul/of] . ljut ^ dlxgfdf rf}tf/Ldf hDdf &% cf]6f 5nkmn ePsf lyP . h;df *) hgf jQmfn] 5nkmndf efu lnPsf lyP eg] To;dWo] #! hgf dlxnf jQmf lyP . @_ k':ts k|sfzg o; cfly{s jif{df dfl6{g rf}tf/L k':ts z[ª\vnfcGtu{t hDdf !! j6f k':ts k|sfzg eof] . k|sflzt ePsf k':tsx?sf] gfdM !_ zfxL zf;gdf :jtGq /]l8of]M bdg k|lt/f]wsf] syf -#$, ljgf]b 9'ª\u]n_ @_ ldl8of cg';GWffgM k|fl1s k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0fsf s]xL cEof; -#% b]j/fh x'dfufO{+, sf]dn e§ / s[i0f clwsf/L_ #_ dfcf]jfbL ljb|f]xM ;z:q ;ª\3if{sf] cjlw -#^, ef:s/ uf}td, k"0f{ a:g]t / lr/g dfgGw/, ;+=_ ^_ ldl8of ;+jfbM g]kfnL kqsfl/tfaf/] cGtjf{tf{ -#&, z]v/ k/fh'nL, ;+=_ %_ ;dfj]zL ldl8of -#*, k|To"if jGt, xif{dfg dxh{g, b]j/fh x'dfufO{ / z]v/ k/fh'nL, ;+=_ $_ dw]z ljb|f]xsf] gfnLj]nL -#(, ef:s/ uf}td, ;+=_ &_ Suitably Modern (40, Mark Liechty) *_ By The Way (41, Ajit Baral, Bela Malik, DR Pant, Jagannath Adhikari, Purna Basnet and Usha Titikshu)

(_ ldl8of cWoog # [email protected], b]j/fh x'dfufO, k|To"if jGt, z]v/ k/fh'nL / sf]dn e§, ;+=_ !)_ ;dfj]zLs/0fM/fhgLlts bn, /fHo / ldl8of -$#, cg'ej clht, ;+=_ !!_ afn jfªdo sf]if -$$, k|df]b k|wfg_ o;} u/L Studies in Nepali History and Society sf Vol [email protected]_ / [email protected] -!_ sf b'O{ c+s dfl6{g rf}tf/L ;d]tsf] ;+nUgtfdf tof/ u/L d08nf a's KjfOG6af6 k|sfzLt eP . Vol [email protected] [email protected]_ k|];df k7fpg nfluPsf] 5 . To:t} zflGtsf] nflu ;femf cleofg, g]kfn blIf0f Pl;of s]Gb|, P8\ef]s];L kmf]/d, ;fd'bflos ljsf; ;Ë7g, hfu/0f ldl8of ;]G6/ / dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf] ;+o'Qm k|sfzg ;dfh lj1fg;DaGwL cw{jflif{s hg{n ?kfGt/0fM ;dfh cWoog o; cfly{s jif{df k|sflzt x'g ;s]g . t/ xfn kfFrf} cÍ k|sfzgsf] eg] tof/L eO/x]sf] 5 . -dfl6{g rf}tf/Ldf ;~rfng eO/x]sf ljleGg kl/of]hgf cGtu{t oL k':tsx¿ k|sflzt ul/Psf] xf]] . o;af/]df kl5Nnf v08df yk rrf{ ul/g]5 ._ uPsf b'O{ cfly{s jif{df dfl6{g rf}tf/L / cGo ;+:yf ;d]tsf] ;+nUgtfdf hDdf @$ cf]6f k':ts -!* k':ts / ^ hg{n u/L_ k|sfzLt eP . o;/L x]bf{ dfl;s ?kdf Pp6f k|sfzg h'g k':ts jf hg{nsf] ?kdf k|sfzLt eO{/x]sf] 5 . hg{nx?sf] k|sfzgdf cGo ;+:yfx?sf] ;+of]hg ePklg k':ts k|sfzgdf eg] c? s'g} ;+:yfsf] ;+of]hg 5}g . Dffl6{g rf}tf/Lsf k':ts sf7df8f}+sf d'Vo k;ndf pknAw 5g\ . o; jif{ k|sflzt k':tsdf dfcf]jfbL ljb|f]xM ;z:q ;ª\3if{sf] cjlw / dw]; ljb|f]xsf] gfnLa]nL ;DaGwL k':tssf] ljqmL /fd|} ePsf] lyof] . ldl8of;DaGwL k':tssf] ljqmL klg kf]xf]/ ;fnsf] t'ngfdf /fd|f] 5 . lghL If]qaf6 kqsfl/tf / cfd ;~rf/sf] cWoog ;'? ePsfn] of] ePsf] xf] . o;sf ;fy} dfl6{g rf}tf/Ln] dbgk'/:sf/ k':tsfno, lqe'jg ljZjljBfno s]Gb|Lo k':tsfno, /fli6«o k':tsfno, ;f];n ;fOG; jxfMsf] k':tsfno, sf7df8f]+ pkTosf ;fjh{lgs k':tsfno cflbdf lgoldt ¿kdf k':ts lbg] u/]sf] 5 . c? k':tsfnon] k':ts cg'/f]w u/] klg cj:yf / cfjZostf x]/L k':ts lbg] ul/Psf] 5 . o; jif{ k|sflzt ePsf dWo] 5 cf]6f k':tssf] ljdf]rg rf}tf/Ls} 5nkmn sIfdf km/s km/s ;dodf ul/of] . cl3Nnf] cfly{s jif{ [email protected])^#÷^$_df k|sflzt ug'{kg]{ t/ ljz]if sf/0fa; x'g g;s]sf] k':ts o;} cfly{s jif{df k|sflzt eof] . åGå k|efljt If]qdf ljleGg JolQmx¿n] u/]sf ofqf cg'ejaf/]sf] k':ts afO b j] ut jif{b]lv g} ;Dkfbgsf] r/0fdf clNem/x]sf] lyof] . h'g o; jif{ k|sflzt eof] . 2

#_ dfl6{g rf}tf/L k':tsfno dfl6{g rf}tf/L k':tsfnodf @)^% c;f/;Dddf hDdf !!,!%% j6f k':tsx? 5g\ . k':tsafx]s y]l;;, ck|sflzt k|ltj]bgx? klg 5g\ . ldl8of;DaGwL ;fdu|LnfO{ Jojl:yt agfP/ /fVgsf nflu 8flg8faf6 cfly{s ;xof]u k|fKt ePsf]n] t'ngfTds ?kdf ldl8of;DaGwL ;fdu|L w]/} 5g\ . xfd|f] ;+sngdf ldl8ofsf k':tsx? @,@^@ -g]kfnL–ljb]zL u/L_ 5g\ . g]kfnL ldl8ofaf/] ck|sflzt k|ltj]bgx? !%*, sfo{kqx¿ @@* / zf]wkqx? !!^ 5g\ . oL afx]s cGo k':tsx?df /fhgLltzf:q, n}lËstf, jftfj/0f, Oltxf;, wd{, :jf:Yo, cy{zf:q, ;flxTo cflb ljifosf k':tsx? /x]sf 5g\ . o; k':tsfnodf b}lgs ;/b/ !) hgf kf7sx? k9\g cfpg] u/]sf 5g\ . k':tsfnodf /x]sf k':tsx?dWo] @)^$ ;fpg ! b]lv @)^% c;f/ d;fGt;Dddf hDdf #,%@% j6f k':tsx? ylkPsf 5g\ . oLdWo] @,@@% j6f lslgPsf / afFls !,#)) j6f k':tsx? pkxf/:j?k rf}tf/L 8s'd]G6];g ;]G6/nfO{ k|fKt ePsf x'g\ . o;jif{ hg{nx¿sf] Joj:yfkg ul/of] . t/ km'6s/ cfl6{snx¿sf] 8]6fa]; eg] agfpg ;lsPsf] 5}g . nfdf] ;dob]lv /f]lsPsf] Go'h lSnlkª\;sf] sfo{ o;aif{ s]xL cufl8 a9]sf] 5 . @)^# j}zfveGbf kl5sf] lSnlkª\; agfpg afFsL 5 . k':tsfnodf pkof]ustf{sf] rfk a9]sfn] pkof]ustf{nfO{ ;3fpg] p2]Zon] /ldtf dxh{gnfO{ lgo'Qm ul/of] . To;afx]s Go'h lSnlkª\;sf] sfddf klg pxfFn] ;3fpg' x'G5 . rf}tf/L k':tsfnodf k':ts / kqklqsfsf nflu 7fpF cefj clt g} v6\s]sf] 5 . pknAw :yfgsf] clwstd pkof]u ub}{ ‰ofnx¿df ;d]t lstfasf ¥ofsx¿ /fv]/ sfd rnfOPsf] 5 . ca To:tf s'g}klg 7fpF afFsL 5}gg\ . :yfgsf] cefjn] klqsf e"OFdf /flvPsf] 5 . $_ jftfj/0fLo Gofo sfo{qmd kmf]8{ kmfp08]zgåf/f ;xof]u k|fKt jftfj/0fLo Gofo sfo{qmdsf ;Dk"0f{ ultljlwx? ut cfly{s jif{ [email protected])^#÷^$_d} k'/f e};s]sf x'g\ . o; cfly{s jif{sf] nflu afFls /x]sf] h}ljs ljljwtfaf/] Pp6f k':ts k|sfzgsf] ;+of]hgsf] lhDdf xl/ 9'ª\ufgfnfO{ lbOPsf] lyof] . clxn] k':ts -h}ljs ljljwtf / hghLljsf_ sf ;a} n]v–/rgfx? -hDdfhDdL !( cf]6f cWofox?_ clGtd ?kdf cfPkl5 k':tssf] kf08'nLlk slk Ol8l6ªsf] nflu tof/ e};s]sf] 5 . l56} g} slk Ol8l6ªsf] k|s[of cufl8 a9fP/ k':ts 5flkg] 5 . %_ ldl8of cg';Gwfg sfo{qmd

ldl8of cg';Gwfg sfo{qmd cGtu{t ePsf sfdx¿ o;k|sf/ 5g\

ldl8of ;|f]t ;fdu|L s]Gb|df k"j{jt ultljlwn] o; jif{ klg lg/Gt/tf kfof] . rf}tf/L ;|f]t ;fdu|L s]Gb|df sfo{kq / k|sflzt cg';Gwfgd"ns tyf ljZn]if0ffTds n]v, zf]w u|Gy / ck|sflzt k|ltj]bg, k':tsx? ;Íng ug]{ sfd ul/of] . /, ;+slnt ;fdu|Lsf] Joj:yfkg klg ul/of] . o;af/] yk rrf{ dfl6{g rf}tf/L k':tsfno pkzLif{sdf cufl8 g} rrf{ ul/ ;lsPsf] 5 . s]Gb| ;j{;fwf/0fsf nflu 5 lbg vf]Ng] ul/Psf] lyof] . kl5 sfdsfhL pkof]ustf{sf] ;'emfj cg'?k xKtfdf ;ft} lbg vf]lnof] . t/ zlgaf/ vf]Nbf klg pkof]u ug]{ cfuGt'ssf] pkl:ylt cToGt} yf]/} /Xof] . t;y{ kfFr dlxgfkl5 @)^$ r}tb]lv k'gM zlgaf/ klg v'Ng] s]Gb|nfO{ aGb ul/of] . /, b}lgs v'Ng] ;do a9fO{ cfOtaf/b]lv z'qmaf/;Dd laxfg !)M#) ah]b]lv a]n'sf %M#) ;Dd s]Gb| v'Ng] agfof] . h'g oyfjt 5 . ldl8of k|f]h]S6cGtu{t ut [email protected])^#÷^$_ cfly{s jif{df k|sfzLt x'g'kg]{ t/ k|fljlws sf/0fjz l9nf] ePsf] zfxL zf;gdf :jtGq /]l8of] o; cfly{s jif{df k|sfzLt eof] . Tof] afx]s o; cfly{s jif{df c? tLg k':ts klg k|sflzt eP . h;df b]j/fh x'dfufO{, sf]dn e§ / s[i0f clwsf/Låf/f lnlvt k':ts ldl8of cg';GwfgM k|fl1s k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0fsf s]xL cEof; o; jif{ k|slzt klxnf] k':ts xf] . g]kfnL ljZjljBfnodf kqsfl/tfsf] k9fO / zf]w, g]kfnL ldl8ofaf/] x'g] ljleGg 5nkmn, sfo{kq / k':ts k|sfzgsf ljleGg cfofdnfO{ o; k':tsn] ;d]6]sf] 5 . bf];|f] k':ts ldl8of ;+jfbM g]kfnL kqsfl/tfaf/] cGtjf{tf{ xf] . o; k':tsdf 5fkf dfWod, k|;f/0f dfWod, If]qLo ldl8of, kqsfl/tf k|lzIf0f / kqsf/sf ;+:yf u/L kfFr ljifodf !% hgf;Fu ul/Psf] cGtjf{tf{nfO{ ;d]l6Psf] 5 . of] k':ts z]v/ k/fh'nLn] tof/ kfg'{ePsf] xf] . t];|f] k':ts k|To"if jGt, xif{dfg dxh{g, b]j/fh x'dfufO{+ / z]v/ k/fh'nLåf/f ;Dkflbt k':ts ;dfj]zL ldl8of xf] . o; k':tsdf ldl8ofdf dlxnf, hghflt, blnt / dw];L kqsf/sf] ;xeflutfsf ljleGg kIfaf/] n]vfhf]vf ul/Psf P3f/cf]6f n]vx¿ 5g\ . oL k':tsx?sf] ljleGg kqklqsfx?df ;dLIff ePsf 5g\ . cl3Nnf] cfly{s jif{ [email protected])^#÷^$_df em}F dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf] ldl8of 5nkmn z[ÎnfcGtu{t sf7df8f}Faflx/sf] ldl8ofsf] cj:yfaf/] ToxLFs} JolQmnfO{ jQmf -kl08t_ agfO{ 5nkmn rnfpg] of]hgf /flvPsf] lyof] . @)^$ ebf} @& 3

df afFs]sf x]dGt sdf{rfo{ / lj/f6gu/sL ;/:jtL sfsL{nfO{ o;sf nflu lgDTofOof] . oxL sfo{qmdsf nflu tof/ kf/]sf] ;/:jtL sfsL{sf] n]vgLnfO{ ldl8of hg{n # df k|sfzg klg ul/Psf] 5 . ;g\ @))* sf] ldl8of km]nf]l;k k|bfg ug{sf nflu @))* sf] dfr{df cfj]bg dfu ul/Psf] lyof] . cfj]bg d"NÍgssf] nflu k|To"if jGt, 1fg" kf08] / lbkf uf}tdsf] ;ldlt ag]sf] lyof] . h;n] s"n %$ k|fKt ePsf cfj]bgdWo] * hgfnfO{ 5fg]sf] lyof] . km]nf]l;k kfPsf JolQmx¿n] cg';Gwfgsf] sfd ul//x]sf 5g\ . of] sfo{qmd ;+of]hgsf] lhDdf z]v/ k/fh'nLsf] /x]sf] 5 . km]nf]l;k kfPsf JolQmx¿sf] gfdM :jtGq cg';Gwfgstf{x? !_ xl/snf clwsf/L, @_ b'jLgGb 9sfn, #_ /}g' s'df/L u'?ª, / $_ h] lj ljZjsdf{ PdP y]l;;sf nflu 5flgPsf cg';Gwfgstf{x? !_ ljBf rfkfufO{, @_ n]vgfy kf08], #_ xl/s[i0f 8+uf]n, / $_ cGhgf j}B >]i7 . jflif{s ldl8of hg{n ldl8of cWoogsf] t];|f] c+s -;g\ @))*_ o; cfly{s jif{ k|sflzt eof] . hDdf $#@ k]hsf] of] hg{ndf @) hgf n]vssf ljleGg ;fdu|Lsf ;fy} b'O{ cGtjf{tf{ 5flkPsf] 5 . hg{nsf] o; cÍsf ;+of]hg b]j/fh x'dfufO{nufot k|To"if jGt, sf]dn e§ / z]v/ k/fh'nLn] ug'{ePsf] xf] . ;g\ @))* sf] km]a'|c/Lb]lv 8flg8f Xo'uf]sf] ;xof]udf kl/of]hgfnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbOPsf] 5 . ;g\ @))& sf] cGtlt/ ldl8of;DaGwL rf}tf/Ln] u/]sf sfdx?nfO{ 8flg8fsf] tkm{af6 /fds[i0f /]UdLn] l/Eo' ug{' ePsf] lyof] . oxfFn] cfkm\gf] k|ltj]bgdf rf}tf/Ln] u/]sf sfdx?nfO{ of] of] ug]{ eGbfklg u/]sf sfdx?nfO{ a9L k|z+;f ug'{ePsf] 5 . nfOa|]/Lsf nflu 7fFp gk'u]sfn] 7fFp yKg'kg]{ ;'emfj lbg' ePsf] lyof] eg] u/L/x]sf sfdx?nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg' kg]{ s'/f pNn]v ug'{ePsf] lyof] . oxfFn] u/]sf d'Vo ljifox?df k':ts k|sf;g, ldl8of 5nkmn / ldl8of cg';Gwfg lyof] . ^_ /fhgLlt / dfgjLo ;'/Iff g]j]{lhog rr{ P8sf] ;xof]udf dfl6{g rf}tf/Ln] /fhgLlts / dfgjLo ;'/Iff;DaGwL sfd ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . xfn}sf] cfly{s jif{ [email protected])^$÷^%_df o; sfo{qmd cGtu{t tLgcf]6f k':ts k|sfzg ul/;Sg] / Pp6f gofF k':tssf] yfngL ug]{ of]hgf /x]sf] lyof] . k|sflzt ul/g'kg]{ k':tsx?dWo] b'Oj6f c+u|]hLdf 5g\ . klxnf] huGgfy clwsf/Lsf] k|fl1s n]vx?sf] ;Fufnf] ;fdflhs kl/jt{gM hLljsfsf] ablnFbf] cfofd xf] . bf];|f] k':ts k|df]b e§åf/f ;Dkflbt g]kfndf z}lIfs Joj:yf xf] . of] k':ts d"ntM @))& ;fnkl5 g]kfnsf] lzIffaf/] n]lvPsf] k|fl1s n]vx?sf] ;+sng xf] . o; k':tssf] ;Dk"0f{ sfd ;lsO;s]sf] / d'b|0fsf] nflu l5§} k7fOg]5 . t];|f] k':ts, rf}tf/Låf/f @)^$ ;fndf k|sflzt dfcf]jfbL ljb|f]xM ;z:q ;+3{ifsf] cjlw k':tssf] qmlds k|sfzg xf] . dfcf]jfbL ;+3if{M zflGtk"0f{ ?kfGt/0f zLif{sdf k|sflzt x'g] o; k':tssf] ;Dkfbgsf] lhDdf ef:s/ uf}td / lr/g dfgGw/sf] /x]sf] 5 . of] k':ts klg cl3Nnf] k':tsem}F k'/fgf n]vx?sf] ;+sng xf] . h;df @)^@ dª\l;/df ;ft bn / dfcf]jfbLaLr [email protected] a'Fb] ;xdlt ePsf] cjlwb]lv cGtl/d ;+ljwfgsf] k|f/De;Fu} g]skf -dfcf]jfbL_ /fHosf] Pp6f dxTjk"0f{ kIf ePsf] lbg;DdnfO{ ;d]l6Psf] 5 . ut jif{df g} j}b]lzs ;xfotf / nf]stGq;DaGwL ;|f]t ;Fufnf] k|sfzg ug]{ s'/f ePklg nf]stGq;DaGwL ;|f]t ;+ufnf]sf] ;§f of]u]z/fhsf] ;Dkfbgdf sfu'yLsf] jskq gfds k':ts- lkhG6sf] Oltxf;_ / a}b]lzs ;xfotf ;DalGw tfT;'/f] km'hLs'/fsf] ;Dkfbgdf cfpFbf] cfly{s jif{ [email protected])^%÷^^_df k':ts k|sflzt ul/g]5 . o;} cfly{s jif{ [email protected])^$÷^%_sf] cGTolt/ /fli6«o ;'/Iff;DaGwL z'? ePsf] cg';Gwfgaf6 k':ts k|sfzg ul/g]5 . cf7÷b; cf]6f n]vx?sf] ;+sngsf] ?kdf cfpFbf] cfly{s jif{ [email protected])^%÷)^^_df o;nfO{ k|sflzt ul/g]5 . o; k':tssf] ;Dkfbg÷;+of]hgsf] lhDdf g]kfn ;fKtflxs sf ;Dkfbg ;'wL/ zdf{nfO{ lbOPsf] 5 . k':tssf] tof/LnfO{ Wofgdf /fv]/ ;fpg ! ut] rf}tf/Ln] g]kfnL ;]gfdf ?kfGt/0fM ;Defjgf / r'gf}tL zLif{sdf Pp6f uf]i7Lsf] cfof]hgf u¥of] . h;df k"j{ ;}lgs clws[t, ;}Go ;jfnsf cg';Gwftf Pj+ ;Defljt n]vs / ;|f]t JolQmx?sf] ;xeflutf /Xof] . ;f] uf]i7Lsf] p2]Zo cg';Gwfgsf] ljljw ljifo÷;jfn klxNofpFg' / k':tsnfO{ uxg agfpg' /x]sf] lyof] . ;fy} k':tssf] nflu n]vs rogsf] sfo{ klg cl3 al9;s]sf] 5 . w]/} nfdf] ;dob]lv ljljw sf/0fjz clNemPsf] jfO b j]M 6«feN; y|' g]kfN; slGˆnS6 o; cfly{s jif{df k|sflzt eof] . of] k':ts ;z:q ;+3{ifsf] ;dofjlwdf cGo sfdsf] l;nl;ndf dfcf]jfbL k|efljt If]q k'u]sf JolQmx?n] n]v]sf] ofqf ;+:d/0f xf] . n'y/g jN8 km]8/];gsf] cfly{s ;xof]udf k|sflzt of] k':tsdf kfFrcf]6f ;+:d/0ffTds n]vx? 5g\ .

4

&_ g]kfndf ;fdflhs ;dfj]zLs/0fsf d'2fx? dfl6{g rf}tf/Ln] g]kfndf ;fdflhs ;dfj]zLs/0fsf d'2fx? gfds sfo{qmd OP;kLsf] cfly{s ;xof]udf @))& dfr{ dlxgfb]lv ;~rfng u/]sf] xf] . @))* sf] km]a|'c/Ldf of] sfo{qmdsf] cf}krfl/s cGTo x'g'kg]{ lyof] . t/ ljleGg sf/0fjz k|:tfljt sfdx? pQm cjlwdf ;DkGg ug{ g;s]sf]n] yk tLg dlxgf -dO{;Dd_ ;do dfu ul/of] . s]xL jif{ otfb]lv ;fdflhs ;dfj]zLs/0f ljifo g]kfnsf] /fhgLlts ax;df cToGt dxTj;fy p7\b} cfPsf] 5 . o;y{ g]kfnsf ljleGg :yfgx?df o; ljifodfly j[xQ/ 5nkmnsf] cfof]hgf / ;fy} cWoog÷cg';Gwfgsf dfWodn] g]kfnL ;dfhsf ljleGg ju{, ;d'bfo, lnª\u / If]qsf ;dfj]zLs/0fsf /fhgLlts, ;fdflhs÷;f+:s[lts Pjd\ cfly{s d'2fx?sf] klxrfg ug]{ p2]Zon] rf}tf/Ln] pQm sfo{qmd ;~rfng u¥of] . 5l/P/ /x]sf To:tf ;jfnx?nfO{ ;ª\sng u/L To;sf] clen]vLs/0f ug]{ klg ;f] sfo{qmdsf] p2]Zo lyof] . o; sfo{qmdcGtu{t Ps jif{sf] cjlwdf ;dfj]zLs/0f /fHo k'g;{+/rgf;DaGwL ljifodf b]zsf ljleGg :yfgdf 5nkmn / cg';Gwfg u/LPsf] lyof] . cg';Gwfgx? ;DkGg u/]sf] 5 . o; sfo{qmdcGtu{t tLgcf]6f k':ts k|sfzg ul/Psf] 5 . h;df dw]; cfGbf]ng s]Gb|Lt 5nkmnx?df k|:t't sfo{kqx?sf] ;Fufnf]sf] ¿kdf dw]; ljb|f]xsf] gfnLa]nL -;+– ef:s/ uf}td_ / ;dfj]zLs/0fM /fhgLlts bn, /fHo / ldl8of -;+– cg'ej chLt_ k|sfzLt ePsf 5g eg] t];|f] k':ts /fHo k'g;+{/rgfM /fhgLlts, cfly{s / ;f+:s[lts b[li6sf]0f -n]vs– k|f= s[i0f vgfn, emns ;'j]bL / d'Qml;+x tfdfª_ 5flkb} 5 . dfl6{g rf}tf/L / OP;kL;Fusf] ;Demf}tfcg'?k tf]lsPsf] /sddWo] cf7 nfv kRrL; xhf/ afFsL /x]sf] 5 . ;f] /sdaf6 ;dfj]zLs/0fM /fhgLlts bn, /fHo / ldl8of k':tssf] s]xL n]vx?nfO{ c+u|]hLdf cg'jfb ug]{ sfd eO/x]sf] 5 . To;sf] ;fy} ;+ljwfg;ef / ;dfj]zLs/0fsf d'2fnfO{ s]lGb|t u/L % j6f 5nkmn sfo{qmd ug]{ tof/L eO/x]sf] 5 . rf}tf/L 5nkmn sIf of ;f] eGbf aflx/ klg 5nkmn ug{ ;lsg]5 . 5nkmndf sf7df7f}+aflx/ /x]sf ;/f]sf/jfnf JolQmx?nfO{ klg ;xefuL u/fOg] 5 .

5nkmn z[ª\vnf

rf}tf/Lsf] lgoldt 5nkmn z[ª\vnfcGtu{t ;fdflhs ;dfj]zLs/0f / /fHo k'g;{+/rgf;DaGwL ljifodf dlxgfsf] Pp6f 5nkmn cfof]hg ug]{ of]hgf lyof] . h;df hDdf [email protected] cf]6f 5nkmn eP . oL 5nkmnx?df d'Vo ?kdf hftLo / wfld{s klxrfg, To;sf ;d:of Pjd\ r'gf}lt tyf /fHosf cª\ux?df x/]s ju{ Pjd\ ;d'bfosf] Gofof]lrt k|ltlglwTj / ;dfj]zLs/0fsf d'2f;DaGwL ax; eP .

j[xQ/ cGtlqm{of sfo{qmd

o; sfo{qmdcGtu{t ljleGg :yfgx?df hDdf gf}cf]6f cGtlqm{of sfo{qmdx? ul/of] . o;dWo] sf7df8f}+df tLgcf]6f / sf7df8f}+ aflx/ 5cf]6f sfo{qmd ul/of] . o; z[ª\vnfsf] klxnf] cGtlqm{of sfo{qmd @@ clk|n @))& df bfªdf ul/of] . o;sf] nuQ} @% clk|n @))& df 88]Nw'/fdf csf]{ sfo{qmd ul/of] . To:t} @))& sf] #) h'gdf nlntk'/df, & cu:6df afUn'ªdf, !$ cu:6df bf]nvfdf, * cS6'a/df sf7df8f}+df, # l8;]Da/df wgs'6fdf, % l8;]Da/df ufO{3f6df / clGtd sfo{qmdsf] ?kdf @* hgj/Ldf sf7df8f}+df ;DkGg ul/of] . o:tf j[xQ/ cGtlqm{ofx? cfof]hgf ug'{sf] d"n p2]Zo Pp6} ynf]df Tof] 7fpFF / To; jl/kl/sf ufpF;x/sf /fhgLlts, ;dflhs Pjd\ cfly{s d"nk|jfxLs/0faf6 5'6]sf -jf 5'6fOPsf_ ju{ tyf ;d'bfosf aLrdf /fhgLlts k|s[of / ;+/rgfdf ltgLx?sf ;dfj]zLs/0fsf d'2f tyf k|s[ofdfly cfk;L 5nkmn ug]{ /x]sf] lyof] . Ps lbg] sfo{qmddf d'Vo ¿kdf blnt, hghflt, dlxnf / cGo cNk;ª\Vos ;d'bfox?nfO{ a9LeGbf a9L ;xefuL u/fpg] p2]Zo /x]sf] lyof] . sfo{qmddf ljleGg ;d'bfosf dlxnfx?sf] ;xeflutfnfO{ ljz]if dxTj lbOPsf] lyof] .

;fdflhs ;dfj]zLs/0f;DaGwL ljljw ljifodf cg';Gwfg

g]kfnsf ljleGg k]zf / ;ª\3;+:yfleq hftLo ljljwtf Pjd\ ;xeflutfaf/] cWoog tyf cg';Gwfg ug]{ p2]Zon] of] sfo{qmd ;~rfng ul/Psf] xf] . oL cg';Gwfgx? d'Votof ljleGg k]zf / ;ª\3;+:yfdf ePsf] hfthfltsf] ;dfj]zLs/0faf/] hg;fª\lVos ;j]{If0f / ljZn]if0f ug]{, To;sf] k|ltlglwTj ;'lglZrt ug{ /fHo cyjf ;DalGwt lgsfosf] s] s:tf] gLlt tyf sfo{qmd /x]sf] jf g/x]sf], / s] u/]df ljleGg ;d'bfosf] ;Gt'lnt / Gofof]lrt k|ltlglwTj ;'lglZrt ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] ;jfnx?df s]lGb|t 5 .

5

o;cGtu{t s]xL k|d'v /fhgLlts bn -eLdk|;fb e't]{n_, g]kfnL ;]gf -lbksk|sfz e§_, g]kfn k|x/L -6Lsf/fd /fO{_, lghfdtL ;]jf -lxSdt ljs]_ / ;~rf/ dfWod -k|To"if jGt_df ;dfj]zLs/0faf/] 5'§f5'§} cWoog ul/of] . oL kfFrcf]6} cg';Gwfgsf] ;ª\u|x ;dfj]zLs/0fM /fhgLlts bn, /fHo / ldl8of gfds k':ts k|sflzt 5 .

/fHo k'g;{+/rgf;DaGwL ljifodf cWoog÷cg';Gwfg

o; zLif{scGtu{t /fHo k'g;{+/rgf;DaGwL tLgcf]6f cWoog ul/Psf] xf] . To; cg'¿k /fHo k'g;{+/rgf;DaGwL /fhgLlt, cy{–/fhgLlt tyf ;+:s[lt u/L tLgcf]6f kf6f]nfO{ cWoogsf] lglDt 5flgPsf] xf] . /fhgLltzf:qL k|f= s[i0f vgfnn] g]kfnL /fHosf] efjL uGtJoM /fHok'g;{+/rgfsf /fhgLlts ljifo ;"lr, g]kfnsf] efjL cy{–/fhgLltdfly cy{/fhgLlt lj1 emns ;'j]bL / ax';f+:s[lts /fi6«jfbsf] lgdf{0f ljifodf ;+:s[ltljb\ d'Qml;+x tfdfªn] cg';GwfgfTds n]v n]v]sf 5g\ . oL tLgcf]6f n]vsf] ;Fufnf]sf] ?kdf /fHo k'g;+{/rgfM /fhgLlts, cfly{s / ;f+:s[lts b[li6sf]0f k':ts k|sfzg x'b}F5 . ;fy} rf}tf/L 8s'd]G6];g ;]G6/sf] lglDt /fhgLlt, /fHo ;+/rgf, ;+:s[lt tyf ;dfj]zLs/0f;DaGwL k':ts tyf cGo kf7\o ;fdu|Lx? klg ;Íng tyf vl/b ul/of] . *_ dw];sf] ljifodf ;fj{hlgs ax;÷;Djfb @)^# df3sf] dw]; ljb|f]xn] of] ljifodfly cWoog÷cg';Gwfg / ;fj{hlgs ax;x? x'g' cfjZos /x]5 eGg] s'/f w]/}nfO{ a'emfpg ;lhnf] eof] . t/ df3sf] ljb|f]x nuQ} l:ylt lgs} eofjx lyof] . vf;u/L dw];d} uP/ l/kf]l6{ª ug]{, ;a} kIfnfO{ ;d]6]/ ;fj{hlgs 5nkmn jf cGt/lqmof ug]{ k|of;x? plt eO/x]sf lyPgg\ . To;}n] r}t s} k|f/lDes lbgx?df o:tf] sfo{qmd ug{ kfP pQd x'g] ljZjf;df dfl6{g rf}tf/Ln] b'O dlxgfsf] ;fgf] of]hgf tof/ u¥of] . of] of]hgfsf] Ps dfq p2]Zo cfGbf]ng k|efljt lhNnfx?df :yfgLo ;|f]t, ;fwgsf] ;Sbf] pkof]u u/]/ kfFrj6f If]qLo :t/sf] cGt/lqmof sfo{qmd ug'{ lyof] . tfls cGof]nnfO{ lrg{ of] sfo{qmdn] ;3fcf];\ ;fy} Pscsf{;Fu ;Djfb g} ug{ grfxg] zlQmx?nfO{ Pp6} d~rdf ;xefuL u/fpg ;lsof];\ . olx p2]ZonfO{ ;fsf/ kfg{ @)^$ j}zfvdf g]kfnu~h, jL/u~h, hgsk'/, nxfg / lj/f6gu/df kfFrcf]6f cGt/lqmof sfo{qmd ul/of] . of] sfo{qmd ;a} 7fpFdf :yfgLo dw];L ;+:yfx?sf] cu|;/tfdf dfq ;DkGg ePsf] lyPg, sfo{qmddf af]Ng], l6Kk0fL ug]{, sfo{kq n]Vg] clwsf+z jQmfx? klg :yfgLo lhNnfx?af6} lyP . tyflk vu]Gb| ;+u|f}nf, ;Ls] nfn, ljhosfGt s0f{ / xl/ /f]sfnufot JolQmTjx? sfo{qmdsf cltly jQmfsf ?kdf /xg'eof] . ef:s/ uf}tdsf] ;+of]hgdf ePsf] of] sfo{qmddf OP;lk -OgPalnª :6]6 k|f]u|fd_n] ;xof]u u/]sf] lyof] . ;f] sfo{qmddf k|:t't ul/Psf] sfo{kqnfO{ k'gn]{vg u/L ;fy} dw]; cfGbf]ng;Fu ;DalGwt s]xL dxTjk"0f{ kf6fx?df gofF n]vx? ;d]t n]vfP/ dw];L cfGbf]ngsf] ljifodf Pp6f k':ts k|sfzg ul/of] . dw]z ljb|f]xsf] gfnLa]nL gfds ;f] k':ts @)^%sf] z'?df g} k|sflzt ul/Psf] 5 . (_ :jf:Yo, ;dfh / cy{/fhgLltsf] sfo{qmd :jf:Yo ;dfh / cy{ /fhgLlt;DaGwL sfo{qmd O8ga/f ljZj ljBfno -a]nfot_, dfl6{g rf}tf/L -g]kfn_ / :jf:Yo tyf ;fdflhs Gofo s]Gb| -ef/t_ n] ;+o'Qm ?kdf ;~rfng ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . o; sfo{qmd cGtu{t blIf0f Pl;of vf;u/L g]kfn / ef/t_df cf}iflw pBf]usf ljleGg kIfx¿ h:t} pTkfbg, ljt/0f tyf pkef]u / o;;Fu ;DalGwt ljifox¿nfO{ ;d]6\g] ul/Psf] 5 . o; sfo{qmd l8PkmcfO8L÷OP;cf/;Ln] cfly{s ;xof]udf ;~rfng eO/x]sf] 5 . h;df O8ga/f ljZjljBfnosf] tkm{af6 Oofg xfk{/ / dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf] tkm{af6 dw';'bg ;'j]bL ;+nUg x'g'x'G5 . pQm sfdsf] z'?cftdf ;ldtf e§/fO{ ;+nUg /xg'ePsf] lyof] . cu:6 @))& df ;ldtf e§/fO{ pRr lzIffsf] nflu cd]l/sf hfg'eof] . cS6f]a/ @))& b]lv ;f] sfddf gljg /fjn ;+nUg x'g'x'G5 . o; sfo{qmd;Fu ;+nUg JolQmx? PSn} of ;fd'lxs ?kdf ljleGg sfo{qmdx?df ;xefuL x'g'x'GYof] . k|;'lt tyf :qL /f]u ljz]if1;Fu cGtjf{tf{sf nflu O8ga/f ljZjljBfnoaf6 k|f= Kofl6«l;of h]km/Ln] g]kfndf cfO ljleGg ljz]if1;Fu cGtjf{tf{ ug'{ePsf] lyof] . pxfFn] dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf] 5nkmndf jQmfsf] ¿kdf ;xefuL eO clS;6f]l;gsf] ljleGg lsl;dsf] k|of]u / To;n] ;'Ts]/L dlxnf tyf aRrfnfO{ kfg]{ ;sf/fTds tyf gsf/fTds c;/af/] ef/t tyf g]kfnsf] cg'ej ;'gfpg'ePsf] lyof] . To;}u/L gf]e]Da/ @))& df w/fgdf ePsf] dfgl;s /f]u ljz]if1x¿sf] @ lbg] /fli6«o uf]i7Ldf dw';'bg ;'j]bLn] efu lnO o; cWoogsf] af/]df ;xefuLx¿;Fu cfˆgf k|f/lDes glthfx¿ df}lvs ¿kdf k|:t't ug'{ePsf] lyof] . lbNnLdf cfof]hgf ePsf] u'0ffTds cg';Gwfg k4lt gfds xKtf lbg] tflnd sfo{qmddf gljg /fjn ;xefuL x'g'eof] . gf]e]Da/ @))& df bz lbgsf] nflu Oog xfk{/ / gljg /fjn 6

kf]v/f, kfNkf / a'6ansf] e|d0fdf hfg' eO{ To; If]qsf cf}ifwL Jofkf/L, cf}ifwL xf]n;]n/, 8fS6/;Fu s'/fsfgL u/L tYofÍ ;+sng ug'{ eof] . hgj/L @))* df afx| lbgsf] nflu k|;'lt tyf :qL /f]u ljz]if1x?;Fu cGtjf{tf{sf] nflu gljg /fjn a'6jn hfg'eof] . a'6jndf 86\; lSnlgssf dfG5]x?;Fu k/fdz{ ug'{sf] ;fy} :jf:Yo ;]jfsf sd{rf/Lx?;Fu cGtjf{tf{ ul/Psf] lyof] . dfr{ @))* df u'0ffTds tYofÍs ljZn]if0f tflnddf $ lbgsf] nflu gljg /fjn lbNnL hfg'ePsf] lyof] . To:t} lbNnL s]Gb|sf k|d'v :6]kmg PS; d] @))*df Ps xKtfsf] nflu sf7df8f}+ cfP/ dgf]/f]u lrlsT;sx?;Fu cGtjf{tf{ ug'{eof] . d] dlxgfdf g} dfl6{g rf}tf/Ln] cfof]hgf u/]sf] lgoldt 5nkmn sfo{qmddf jQmf klg /xg'eof] . ToxL ;dodf Oog xfk{/n] klg sf7df8f}} cfP/ 5ftL /f]u ljz]if1x?;Fu cGtjf{tf{ lng'eof] . g]kfn cf}iflw lnld6]8sf] P]ltxfl;s k[i7e"ld / jt{dfg cj:yfsf] af/]df To;;Fu ;DalGwt ljleGg ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿nfO{ cGtjf{tf{ lng] sfo{df dw';'bg ;'j]bL ;+nUg x'g'x'G5 . To;}u/L cf}iflw ljqmL k|j4{g ;+lxtf @)^$ sf] af/]df ljleGg ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿;Fu cGtjf{tf{ lnO ;f] ;+lxtf nfu" ubf{ cfOkg]{ ;d:of / To;sf ;dfwfgsf pkfoaf/] tYofÍ ;Íng ePsf] 5 . d] @))* df g]kfn :j:Yo cg';Gwfg kl/ifbsf ;b:o ;lrj 8f= z/b jGt nufot ljleGg ljifosf ljz]if1x¿n] o; cWoogsf] af/]df a'‰gsf] nflu dfl6{g rf}tf/Ldf d"ofÍg e|d0fdf cfpg'ePsf] lyof] . pxfFsf lh1f;fx¿nfO{ Oofg xfk{/ / dw';'bg ;'j]bLn] k|ltpQ/ lbg'ePsf] lyof] . g]kfn :jf:Yo cg';Gwfg kl/ifbdf k7fpg'kg]{ k|ltj]bgsf] ;+of]hg dw';'bg ;'j]bLn] ub}{ cfpg'ePsf] 5 . hDdfhDdL nueu @)) eGbf a9L cGtjf{tf{ lnOPsf] 5 . of] k|f]h]S6sf] clwsf+z ;do cGtjf{tf{ lng] / To;nfO{ cg'jfb ug]{ sfddf laTof] . xfn cGtjf{tf{ lng] sfo{ ;lsof] . casf] clwsf+z ;do lnOPsf] cGtjf{tf{x?nfO{ sDKo"6/ ;ˆ6j]o/sf] u'0ffTds tYofÍ ljZn]if0f k|f]u|fddfkm{t ljZn]if0f ul/g] 5 . o;/L tof/ ePsf n]vx?nfO{ cgs'n ldnfP/ k|sflzt u/Lg]5 . !)_ ;fdflhs ;dfj]zLs/0f cg';Gwfg sf]if ;fdflhs ;dfj]zLs/0f cg';Gwfg sf]if -;km{_÷P;Pgleåf/f ;+rflnt sfo{qmd dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf] yk sfo{qmd xf] . o; sfo{qmd cGtu{t dlxnf, blnt, hghflt, dw]zL, ;d'xsf ljleGg l/;r{ km]nf]x?nfO{ dfl6{g rf}tf/Ln] k|lzlIft ug'{ xf] . o; sfo{qmd cGtu{t $! hgf l/;r{ km]nf]x? ;+nUg lyP . To;sf] sfdsf] ;+of]hg dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf] tkm{af6 k|To"if jGtn] ug'{ePsf] lyof] . @))& sf] cui6b]lv @))* sf] km]a|c/L;Ddsf] cjlw /x]sf] pQm sfo{qmdnfO{ ;3fpg & hgfsf] l6d ag]sf] lyof] . h;df ;]/f tfdfª, ;f}/eb]j e§, k|df]b e§, ;Lh' pkfWofo, huGgfy clwsf/L, dw';'bg ;'j]bL / k|To"if jGt x'g'x'GYof] . l6ddf $! hgf ePklg ## hgfn] dfq pQm cg';Gwfg k'/f u/]sf 5g\ . afFsL * hgfn] eg] h'gsf] cGt;Dd klg l/kf]6{ a'emfPsf 5}gg\ . km]a|'c/L @))* ;Ddsf] ;do l;df eP klg ljljw sf/0fn] ubf{ pQm sfd To; ;dodf gl;l4Psfn] $ dlxgfsf] nflu yk ;do lbOPsf] lyof] . of] sfo{qmd z'? ug{sf] nflu dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf] 5nkmn sIfdf cui6 % b]lv !) ;Dddf ^ lbgsf] cf]l/PG6];g sfo{qmd rnfOof] . ;g\ @))( df klg o:t} sfd ug{ P;Pgle;Fu s'/f rln/x]sf] 5 . !!_ pRr lzIffsf sfo{qmd kmf]8{ kmfpG8];gsf] ;xof]udf @))* km]a|'c/Lb]lv @)!) hgj/L [email protected] jif{_ ;Dddf ;LdfGtLs[t -dlxnf, blnt, hghflt, dw];L_ ju{sf] kx'Fr gfds o; cWoogsf] d'Vo p2]Zo ;a} lnË, hfltsf] pRr lzIffdf k|ltlglwTj s:tf] 5 egL cg';Gwfg ug'{ /x]sf] 5 . of] kl/of]hgf k|df]b e§sf] ;+of]hsTjdf rln/x]sf] 5 . cWoog cg';Gwfgsf] sfddf nLnf clwsf/L, /d]z /fO{, dg s'= 7f8f ;+nUg x'g'x'G5 . pRr lzIff tyf ;fdflhs ;dfj]zLs/0fdf ljleGg ;+3 ;+:yfn] cWoog cg';Gwfg u/]sf l/kf]6{, k':tsx? ;+sng ul/ ;Gbe{ u|Gysf] cfwfeGbf a9L sfd ;DkGg eO{;s]sf] 5 . clk|n @*, @))* df lqe'jg ljZjljBfnosf :gfts tyf ;f] eGbf dfly cWoog/t ljleGg ljBfyL{ ju{x?;Fu pRr lzIffdf ;dfj]zLs/0fsf d'2f;DaGwL ljifodf 5nkmn ul/of] . cg';Gwfgsf] k|f/lDes r/0fdf sf7df8f}+ pkTosfleq cjl:yt s]lGb|o tyf cflËs SofDk;x? -lqlj, lqlj O{l~hlgol/ª lzIff ;+:yfg=, lrlsT;f cWoog ;+:yfg_ / cGo & j6f SofDk;df :gfts / :gftsf]Q/ txdf egf{ eO{ k/LIff kmf/d e/]sf ljBfyL{x?sf] gfdfjnL ;+sng ul/of] . ;+sng ul/Psf] tYofÍ d"NofÍgsf] k|f/lDes ljZn]if0fsf] nflu h'g !!, @))* df dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf] 5nkmn sIfdf Ps cGtlqm{ofTds sfo{qmd ul/of] . h;df dxTjk"0f{ ;'emfj tyf ;Nnfxx? cfPsf lyP . cWoogsf] bf];|f] r/0fdf sf7df8f}+ aflx/ cjl:yt 5gf}6df k/]sf ljleGg !% j6f SofDk;sf tYofÍ ;+sng ul/g]5 . ;fy} lqe'jg ljZjljBfno / cflËs SofDk;sf k|fWofks / cg';Gwftfsf] n}lËs, hftLo / If]qLo ljljwtfsf] 7

l:yltaf/] cWoog ul/g]5 . h;df ljleGg ju{sf ljBfyL{x?;Fu ;d"xut 5nkmn ul/g] 5 . xfn yk cg';Gwfgsf] nflu k|ZgfjnL tof/ kfg]{ sfd eO/x]sf] 5 . cWoog cg';Gwfgsf] qmddf ;+sng ul/Psf] tYofÍ tyf tYofÍaf6 lgsflnPsf] pknlAw -kmfOlG8ª\;_af/] 5nkmn ul/ k'gd"NofÍg ub}{ ;'emfj / ;Nnfxsf] nflu dlxgfdf ! j6f 5nkmn sfo{qmd cfof]hgf ul/g] 5 . o; kl/of]hgfdf l/;r{ OG6g{sf] ?kdf /ZdL 8+uf]nn] sfd ub{} cfpg' ePsf] 5 . pxfFn] l;Gxf; hg{nsf] ;Dkfbgdf ;d]t ;xof]u ug'{x'G5 . [email protected]_ cGo sfo{ g]kfndf dfgj clwsf/sf] If]qdf sfo{/t :k]gL gful/s PDkf/f] 6fd;sf] lgwgkl5 pgsf] ;Demgfdf pgsf z'elrGtsx¿n] PDkf/f] cjf8{ sf]if agfPsf 5g\ . To; sf]ifn] g]kfnsf] dfgj clwsf/sf If]qdf pNn]Vo of]ubfg lbg]x?nfO{ jfli{fs ?kdf ;Ddfg ug]{ sfd ub{5 . ut;fn k'/:sf/ lbg] sfd ePklg of] jif{ eg] To:tf] sfd ePg . sf]ifsf] ;+rfng rf}tf/Lsf] ;dGjodf xf];\ eGg] x]t'n] dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf] vftfdf g} k};f hDdf x'g] u/]sf] 5 . of] jif{df eg] s'g} ultljwL x'g ;s]gg\ . :juL{o dfl6{g xkm\6gsf bfh' Ol/s xkm\6gn] dfl6{g rf}tf/LnfO{ s]xL /sd k7fOlbPsf 5g . k7fOPsf] dWo] w]/} /sd rf}tf/Lsf] 3/ jf hUuf v/Lb ug{sf nflu / s]xL dfq /sd rf}tf/Lsf] cfGt/Ls sfdsf] nflu vr{ ug]{ egLPsfn] ToxL cg';f/ vr{ x'g]5 . -To;sf] lj:t[t ljj/0f @)^$–@)^%sf] cfly{s k|ltj]bgdf x]g'{xf]nf _ . o:t} o;jif{ dfl6{g rf}tf/Ln] cfly{s lgodfjnL klg agfPsf] 5 . lgodfjnL cg';f/ g} cfly{s sfo{ x'g]5 . !#_ sfo{ ;ldlt @)^$÷^% sf] nflu dfl6{g rf}tf/Lsf] sfo{;ldlt o; k|sf/ /x]sf] 5 . cWoIfM ;lrjM sf]iffWoIfM ;b:oM

k|To"if jGt ;]/f tfdfª l;h{gf ;'Aaf ªldGb| bfxfn, wd{ :j0f{sf/, ;+uLtf kf08] / dw';'wg ;'j]bL

8